Fatal overdose may occur when GABAergic substances are combined with other depressants such as opiates, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gabapentinoids, thienodiazepines or alcohol.
It is strongly discouraged to combine these substances, particularly in common to heavy doses.
|Summary sheet: 2M2B|
|Common names||2M2B, 2-methyl-2-butanol|
|Routes of Administration|
2-Methyl-2-butanol (also known as tert-amyl alcohol or 2M2B) is a tertiary alcohol substance that produces depressant, hypnotic, and anxiolytic effects. Historically, it has been used in anesthesia as a component of avertin fluid mixed with tribromoethanol and water. It has a strong solvent smell reminiscent of gasoline, but with little flavor. 2M2B's simple structure and intoxicating effects have led to its use as a recreational drug.
Fusel alcohols including 2M2B are a grain fermentation by-product and therefore present in many alcoholic beverages. Trace levels of 2M2B have also been detected in various food substances, including fried bacon and cassava, rooibos tea, and fruits (such as apple and pineapple).
2-methyl-2-butanol is also known as tert-amyl-alcohol, 2M2B, or amylene hydrate. 2-methyl-2-butanol is an alcohol with the formula C5H11OH. 2-methyl-2-butanol is comprised of butane, an alkyl chain of four carbons. This chain is substituted at R2 with a methyl group CH3- and an alcohol group OH-. It is synthesized by the reaction of 2-methyl-2-butene with water in the presence of an acid catalyst.
2-Methyl-2-butanol inhibits binding to a proconvulsant site on the GABA receptor which causes negatively charged chloride ions to enter neurons and increase the amount of excitation necessary to cause the neurons to fire. As it is a tertiary alcohol, it cannot be metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase into aldehydes (which cause the hangover associated with consuming large amounts of ethanol). This makes 2M2B significantly safer than primary alcohols. However, a consequence of this is that 2-methyl-2-butanol has an extended duration of action with effects which last up to 12 hours after its consumption.
In comparison to other depressants of a similar nature, 2M2B is comparatively closer to alcohol than GHB in terms of its subjective effects and is also considerably more sedating than alcohol but less sedating than GHB.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Sedation - In comparison to alcohol, 2-methyl-2-butanol is significantly more sedating. On low to moderate doses, one may feel a lack of energy, resulting in extreme difficulty in performing basic tasks. This effect can last up to 24 hours afterwards.
- Muscle relaxation
- Motor control loss
- Appetite enhancement
- Pain relief
- Respiratory depression
- Analysis suppression
- Anxiety suppression
- Cognitive euphoria
- Compulsive redosing
- Delusions of sobriety - This is the false belief that one is perfectly sober despite obvious evidence to the contrary such as severe cognitive impairment and an inability to fully communicate with others.
- Focus suppression
- Language suppression
- Memory suppression
- Thought deceleration
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 2M2B use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown although the lowest recorded fatal dose in a human is 30mL. However, 2M2B is expected to be less toxic than ethanol as it cannot be metabolized into aldehydes in the same way. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 2M2B within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with any other GABA receptor agonist, repeated use and increasing tolerance will eventually result in a withdrawal syndrome upon abrupt discontinuation resembling alcohol, barbiturate, or benzodiazepine withdrawal, up to and including delirium tremens ("the shakes"). The chronic use of this compound can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of 2M2B develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 2M2B presents cross-tolerance with all GABAgenic depressants, meaning that after the consumption of 2M2B all depressants will have a reduced effect.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- Depressants (1,4-Butanediol, 2M2B, alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB/GBL, methaqualone, opioids) - This combination potentiates the muscle relaxation, amnesia, sedation, and respiratory depression caused by one another. At higher doses, it can lead to a sudden, unexpected loss of consciousness along with a dangerous amount of depressed respiration. There is also an increased risk of suffocating on one's vomit while unconscious. If nausea or vomiting occurs before a loss of consciousness, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
- Dissociatives - This combination can unpredictably potentiate the amnesia, sedation, motor control loss and delusions that can be caused by each other. It may also result in a sudden loss of consciousness accompanied by a dangerous degree of respiratory depression. If nausea or vomiting occurs before consciousness is lost, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
- Stimulants - Stimulants mask the sedative effect of depressants, which is the main factor most people use to gauge their level of intoxication. Once the stimulant effects wear off, the effects of the depressant will significantly increase, leading to intensified disinhibition, motor control loss, and dangerous black-out states. This combination can also potentially result in severe dehydration if one's fluid intake is not closely monitored. If choosing to combine these substances, one should strictly limit themselves to a pre-set schedule of dosing only a certain amount per hour until a maximum threshold has been reached.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
- ↑ Risks of Combining Depressants - TripSit
- ↑ 2-METHYL-2-BUTANOL - National Library of Medicine HSDB Database | https://www.toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+5005
- ↑ Schlaepfer, K. (1 May 1932). "AVERTIN FLUID ANESTHESIA IN SURGERY". Archives of Surgery. 24 (5): 868. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1932.01160170155006. ISSN 0004-0010.
- ↑ 2-Methyl-2-Butanol (also tert-amyl alcohol) : Erowid Exp: Main Index
- ↑ Gould, G. M. (1919). The Practitioner’s Medical Dictionary: Containing All the Words and Phrases Generally Used in Medicine and the Allied Sciences, with Their Proper Pronunciation, Derivation, and Definition. P. Blakiston’s.
- ↑ Dougan, J., Robinson, J. M., Sumar, S., Howard, G. E., Coursey, D. G. (August 1983). "Some flavouring constituents of cassava and of processed cassava products". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 34 (8): 874–884. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740340816. ISSN 0022-5142.
- ↑ Ho, C. T., Lee, K. N., Jin, Q. Z. (March 1983). "Isolation and identification of volatile flavor compounds in fried bacon". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 31 (2): 336–342. doi:10.1021/jf00116a038. ISSN 0021-8561.
- ↑ Habu, T., Flath, R. A., Mon, T. R., Morton, J. F. (March 1985). "Volatile components of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 33 (2): 249–254. doi:10.1021/jf00062a024. ISSN 0021-8561.
- ↑ http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+5005
- ↑ Martin, J. V., Bilgin, N. M., Iba, M. M. (28 March 2002). "Influence of oxygenated fuel additives and their metabolites on the binding of a convulsant ligand of the gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor in rat brain membrane preparations". Toxicology Letters. 129 (3): 219–226. doi:10.1016/s0378-4274(02)00020-6. ISSN 0378-4274.
- ↑ http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/carey/student/olc/ch15oxidationalcohols.html
- ↑ http://www.toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+5005
- ↑ http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/carey/student/olc/ch15oxidationalcohols.html
- ↑ AMVV - Verordnung über die Verschreibungspflicht von Arzneimitteln
- ↑ Psychoactive Substances Act 2016