List of entheogens - PsychonautWiki

List of entheogens

This page outlines various hallucinogens (deliriants, dissociatives, and psychedelics) employed in ritual contexts, adhering to the strict definition of entheogens. Historically, entheogens have played pivotal roles in religious practices, ranging from the use of ayahuasca in religions like Santo Daime and União do Vegetal to the modern adoption of the synthetic phenetylamine 2C-B by the Sangoma.


Common name Specie Specie, phytochemical(s) Substance effect class Regions/Cultures of use
Bufotoxins Colorado River toad (Incilius alvarius) Secretion: More research is needed to determine if this specie releases Bufadienolides, which are cardiac glycosides (e.g., bufotalin, bufogenin). Tryptamine-related substances: 5-MeO-DMT, bufotenin Psychedelic Bufo alvarious secretion has gained popularity in spiritual retreats.[1] Controversial interpretation of Mesoamerican art.
Bullet ant venom Paraponera clavata Secretion: Poneratoxin Deliriant The Satere-Mawe people use bullet ants to get extremely painful stings in their initiation rites twenty times.[2]


Common name Specie Specie, phytochemical(s) Substance effect class Regions/Cultures of use
Dictyonema huaorani Dictyonema huaorani 5-MeO-DMT, DMT, psilocybin Psychedelic Confirmed used by shamans.[3] Decoction of this lichen has been used by people in Iceland.[4]
Fly agaric Amanita muscaria Muscimol, ibotenic acid Depressant, and dissociative Siberian shamans.[5] Scandinavia. The Soma drink of India.
Panther cap Amanita pantherina Muscimol, ibotenic acid Depressant, and dissociative
Psilocybin mushroom Psilocybe spp. (etc) Psilocybin and psilocin;
baeocystin and norbaeocystin (some species)
Psychedelic Mazatec[6]


Common name Specie Specie, phytochemical(s) Substance effect class Regions/Cultures of use
Angel's trumpet Brugmansia spp. Seed, flower, leaf: Tropane alkaloids Deliriant South America,[7] sometimes used as part of ayahuasca.
Ayahuasca Banisteriopsis caapi Bark: Harmine 0.31-0.84%,[8] tetrahydroharmine, telepathine, dihydroshihunine,[9] 5-MeO-DMT[10] Psychedelic South America; people of the Amazon Rainforest. UDV of Brazil and United States.
Bolivian torch cactus Echinopsis lageniformis Stem: Mescaline Psychedelic South America
Cannabis (marijuana, hashish, kief) Cannabis spp. Flower: Cannabinoids (THC, and CBD) Psychedelic Hindu religion in India, Rastafari movements, Cannabis-based religions like First Church of Cannabis or International Church of Cannabis and other various groups.
Chacruna Psychotria viridis Leaf: DMT Psychedelic UDV of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and the Brazilian church. Santo Daime have used it as part of ayahuasca.
Chaliponga Diplopterys cabrerana Leaf: 5-MeO-DMT, bufotenin, DMT Psychedelic Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru as part of ayahuasca.
Chili pepper Capsicum spp. Fruit: Capsaicin Deliriant "While the Inca may have recognized chili’s potent spiritual medicine, they weren’t the only culture to do so. Chilies were mixed with tobacco and other plants by shamans and medicine people in pre-Columbian Central America to aid in journeys to the upper and lower worlds on behalf of mankind."[11]
Christmas vine Turbina corymbosa Seed: LSA, lysergol, and turbicoryn; up to 0.03% lysergic acid alkaloids[12] Psychedelic Mazatec[13]
Harmal (espand) Peganum harmala Seed: Harmaline and other harmala alkaloids Psychedelic Iran and the Middle East.
Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa Seed: 0.325% ergoline derivatives of dry weight.[14] Psychedelic Huna shamans used them according to various oral histories.[15]
Henbane Hyoscyamus niger Seed, flower, leaf: Tropane alkaloids Deliriant Ancient Greece and witches of the Middle Ages.
Iboga Tabernanthe iboga Root bark: Ibogaine[16] Psychedelic Bwiti] religion of West Central Africa. Used by Western nations to treat opioid addiction.
Jimson weed Datura stramonium Seed, flower, leaf: Tropane alkaloids[17] Deliriant Algonquin, Navajo, Cherokee, Luiseño and the indigenous peoples of Marie-Galante used this plant in sacred ceremonies for its hallucinogenic properties.[18][19][20] It has also been used by Sadhus of India, and the Táltos of the Magyar (Hungary).
Jurema Mimosa tenuiflora syn. Mimosa hostilis Root bark: 1-1.7% DMT[21] and yuremamine Psychedelic Used by the Jurema Cult (O Culto da Jurema) in the Northeastern Brazil.[22]
Labrador tea Rhododendron spp. Leaf: Ledol, some grayanotoxins Deliriant Caucasian peasants used Rhododendron plants for these effects in shamanistic rituals.[23]
Mad honey Rhododendron ponticum Nectar: Grayanotoxins Deliriant In Nepal, this type of honey is used by the Gurung people both for its supposed medicinal and hallucinogenic properties.[24][25]
Mexican morning glory Ipomoea tricolor Seed: Ergoline derivatives[26] (LSA disputed) Psychedelic Zapotecs[27]
Beach moonflower Ipomoea violacea Seed: Ergoline derivatives[28] (LSA disputed) Psychedelic Mazatec[13]
Myristica sebifera Virola sebifera Bark: DMT, and 5-MeO-DMT Psychedelic The smoke of the inner bark of the tree is used by shamans of the indigenous people of Venezuela in cases of fever conditions, or cooked for driving out evil ghosts.[21]
Nyakwána Virola elongata Bark, roots, leaves and flowers: DMT, and 5-MeO-DMT Psychedelic The Yanomami people use the powdered resin as an entheogen known as nyakwána which is inhaled or "snuffed" into the nasal cavity, it contains a high concentration of 5-MeO-DMT and DMT.[29]
Peruvian torch cactus Echinopsis peruviana Stem: Mescaline Psychedelic Pre-Incan Chavín rituals in Peru.
Peyote Lophophora williamsii Stem: Mescaline Psychedelic Native American Church is known as peyotism.[30][31] Alsu used in the Oshara Tradition.
Salvia Salvia divinorum Leaf: Salvinorin A and other salvinorins Psychedelic Mazatec[32]
San Pedro cactus Echinopsis pachanoi Stem: Mescaline Psychedelic South America
Vilca Anadenanthera colubrina Beans: 5-MeO-DMT. Up to 12.4% bufotenin.[33] DMT Psychedelic There have been reports of active use of vilca by Wichi shamans, under the name hatáj.[34]
Yopo Anadenanthera peregrina Beans: 5-MeO-DMT. Up to 7.4% bufotenin.[35] DMT Psychedelic Archaeological evidence of insufflation use within the period 500-1000 AD, in northern Chile, has been reported.[36]


Many modern chemicals with little human history have been recognized to be able to catalyze intense spiritual experiences, and many synthetic entheogens are simply slight modifications of their naturally occurring counterparts. Some synthetic substances like 4-AcO-DMT are prodrugs that metabolize into psychoactive substances that have been used as entheogens.

While synthetic DMT and mescaline are reported to have identical entheogenic qualities as extracted or plant-based sources, the experience may wildly vary due to the lack of numerous psychoactive alkaloids that constitute the material. This is similar to how isolated THC produces very different effects than an extract that retains the many cannabinoids of the plant such as cannabidiol and cannabinol.

Substance IUPAC name Substance effect class Notes
2C-B 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylethanamine Psychedelic 2C-B is used as entheogen by the Sangoma, Nyanga, and Amagqirha people over their traditional plants. It is referred to as Ubulawu Nomathotholo, which roughly translates to "Medicine of the Singing Ancestors".[37][38][39]
4-Hydroxy-5-methoxydimethyltryptamine (psilomethoxin) 4-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine Psychedelic Psilomethoxin is used as a religious sacrament by the Church of Psilomethoxin.[40]
5-MeO-DMT 2-(5-Methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethan-2-amine Psychedelic See species
Bufotenin 3-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-5-ol Psychedelic See species
DMT 2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine Psychedelic See species
DPT N-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)]ethyl-N-propylpropan-1-amine Psychedelic DPT is used as a religious sacrament by the Temple of the True Inner Light who believes that DPT and other entheogens are physical manifestations of God.[41]
Harmaline 7-methoxy-1-methyl-4,9-dihydro-3H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole Psychedelic See Peganum harmala
Ibogaine 12-Methoxyibogamine Psychedelic See Tabernanthe iboga
LSA (8β)-9,10-didehydro-6-methyl-ergoline-8-carboxamide Psychedelic See species
LSD (6aR,9R)-N,N-diethyl-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide Psychedelic Used by League for Spiritual Discovery (LSD), and the Neo-American Church.
Muscimol 5-(Aminomethyl)-isoxazol-3-ol Deliriant See Amanita spp.
Psilocybin [3-(2-Dimethylaminoethyl)-1H-indol-4-yl] dihydrogen phosphate Psychedelic (See also Psilocybe spp) Prodrug for Psilocin. The Mazatec curandera María Sabina was celebrating a mushroom velada with pills of synthetic psilocybin named Indocybin synthesized by Albert Hofmann.[42]
Salvinorin A methyl (2S,4aR,6aR,7R,9S,10aS,10bR)-9-(acetyloxy)-2-(furan-3-yl)-6a,10b-dimethyl-4,10-dioxo-dodecahydro-1H-naphtho[2,1-c]pyran-7-carboxylate Psychedelic See Salvia divinorum


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