|Summary sheet: Theacrine|
|Common names||Theacrine, Temurin, Temorine|
|Substitutive name||1,3,7,9-Tetramethyluric acid|
|Routes of Administration|
Theacrine (also known as Teacrine) is a nootropic stimulant and a structural analog of caffeine, appearing to be synthesized from caffeine in some plants. It is a bitter, white crystalline purine alkaloid that increases activity in the brain and induces temporary improvements including enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and stimulation. Relative to caffeine, it displays about 2/3rds the potency in terms of the stimulation it produces.
The mechanisms of theacrine largely parallel those of caffeine in that while it seems to have a stimulatory effect in rodents, this only occurs at a higher dose (and the exact oral dose where it peaks with theacrine is not known). Similar to caffeine, it produces a sedative effect at relatively low doses, but where this sedative effect with caffeine is at an impractically low dose with theacrine it is the dose normally consumed by tea; this may underlie why Kucha tea tends to be recommended for relaxation more than stimulation.
Theacrine's chemical structure is structurally similar to that of caffeine. It is a synthetic alkaloid with a substituted xanthine core. Xanthine is a substituted purine, which contains two fused rings, a pyrimidine and imidazole. Pryimidine is a 6 membered ring with nitrogen constituents at R1 and R3; imidazole is a 5 membered ring with nitrogen substituents at R1 and R3. Xanthine contains oxygen groups double-bonded to R2 and R6. Like caffeine, it contains additional methyl substitutions at R1, R3, and R7 of its structure, bound to the open nitrogen groups of the xanthine skeleton. It is an achiral aromatic compound.
Theacrine's chemical name is 1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid; in comparison, the chemical name of caffeine is 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, with the only difference in structure being an additional methyl group on the 9-carbon and an additional ketone group, which changes caffeine's xanthine into a uric acid moiety.
Theacrine acts through several mechanisms; however, like caffeine, its most important effect is to counteract a substance called adenosine that naturally circulates at high levels throughout the body (especially in the nervous system). In the brain, adenosine plays a generally protective role, part of which is to reduce neural activity levels. The theacrine molecule is structurally similar to both caffeine and adenosine, and is thus capable of binding to adenosine receptors on the surface of cells without activating them, thereby acting as a competitive inhibitor.
Alongside of this, theacrine is believed to have similar effects on most of the other major neurotransmitters, including dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, and, in high doses, norepinephrine, and to a small extent epinephrine, glutamate, and cortisol.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier dosages will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, theacrine is usually considered to be mildly to moderately energetic and stimulating in a fashion that is considerably weaker in comparison to that of traditional recreational stimulants such as amphetamine, MDMA or cocaine. This encourages physical activities such as performing chores and repetitive tasks which would otherwise be boring and strenuous physical activities. The particular style of stimulation which theacrine presents can be described as forced. This means that at higher dosages, it becomes difficult or impossible to keep still as jaw clenching, involuntarily bodily shakes and vibrations become present, resulting in extreme shaking of the entire body, unsteadiness of the hands, and a general lack of motor control.
- Pain relief - Theacrine has pain reducing properties related to its anti-inflammatory effects. This is believed to be about that of ibuprofen.
- Appetite suppression
- Nausea - This mostly occurs at high doses.
- Bruxism - This effect does not occur as consistently as it does on other stimulants such as MDMA.
The cognitive effects of theacrine can be broken down into several components which progressively intensify proportional to dosage. It contains a large number of typical stimulant cognitive effects. Although negative side effects are usually mild at low to moderate dosages, they become increasingly likely to manifest themselves with higher amounts or extended usage. This particularly holds true during the offset of the experience.
In comparison to caffeine, theacrine's effects tend to confer more benefits to focus than stimulation at equivalent dosages.
The most prominent of these cognitive effects generally include:
- Analysis enhancement
- Compulsive redosing - This effect is less persistent than it is with caffeine, as it tends to have a longer duration.
- Euphoria - This effect is generally mild.
- Increased music appreciation
- Focus enhancement - Compared to caffeine, this effect tends to be more prominent.
- Increased libido
- Memory enhancement
- Motivation enhancement
- Thought acceleration
Toxicity and harm potential
Theacrine is not known to cause brain damage, and has an extremely low toxicity relative to dose. There are relatively few physical side effects associated with theacrine exposure. Various studies have shown that in reasonable doses in a careful context, it presents no negative cognitive, psychiatric or toxic physical consequences of any sort.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with caffeine, theacrine produces dependence with chronic use and has a low abuse potential. When dependence has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects will occur if one suddenly stops its use.
Tolerance to many of the effects of theacrine develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). It should be noted, however, that tolerance buildup does not occur as rapidly as with that of caffeine. Theacrine presents cross-tolerance with antagonists adenosine receptors, meaning that after the consumption of theacrine certain stimulants such as caffeine and theobromine will have a reduced effect.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
- United Kingdom: It may be illegal to produce, supply, or import this substance under the Psychoactive Substance Act 2016, which blanketly applies the aforementioned restrictions on all "psychoactive substances" with exemptions for alcohol, nicotine and "medicinal products."
- Feduccia, A. A., Wang, Y., Simms, J. A., Yi, H. Y., Li, R., Bjeldanes, L., Ye, C., Bartlett, S. E. (August 2012). "Locomotor activation by theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine: involvement of adenosine and dopamine receptors". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 102 (2): 241–248. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2012.04.014. ISSN 1873-5177.
- Frank, K., Patel, K., Lopez, G., Willis, B. (14 June 2018). "Theacrine Research Analysis".
- Fisone, G., Borgkvist, A., Usiello, A. (1 April 2004). "Caffeine as a psychomotor stimulant: mechanism of action". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS. 61 (7): 857–872. doi:10.1007/s00018-003-3269-3. ISSN 1420-9071.
- Caffeine & Neurotransmitters – WORLD OF CAFFINE
- Wang, Y., Yang, X., Zheng, X., Li, J., Ye, C., Song, X. (September 2010). "Theacrine, a purine alkaloid with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities". Fitoterapia. 81 (6): 627–631. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2010.03.008. ISSN 1873-6971.
- Kuhman, D. J., Joyner, K. J., Bloomer, R. J. (19 November 2015). "Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Ingestion of a Theacrine-Containing Dietary Supplement, Caffeine, or Placebo by Young Men and Women". Nutrients. 7 (11): 9618–9632. doi:10.3390/nu7115484. ISSN 2072-6643.
- Psychoactive Substances Act 2016