|Summary sheet: Aniracetam|
|Routes of Administration|
Aniracetam (Draganon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Memodrin, Referan, and systematically as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs. Although it is one of the first known and synthesized derivatives of piracetam, its research and efficacy in humans is limited.
Aniracetam is readily available and sold through online vendors as a dietary supplement in the United States. Dosages are nearly fifteen times those of noopept, making it less potent while offering comparable benefit.
Supplementation of aniracetam tends to be in the dosage range of 800-2500mg taken over the course of a day, either in two to three evenly spread dosing periods, such as three doses of 400mg or 800mg.
Aniracetam has protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia both in rat populations and in human populations, suggesting it can aid recovery from deliriant intoxication and other typically cognitively impaired states by preserving adequate levels of acetylcholine as a primary mechanism.
Aniracetam is a pyrrolidinone compound of the racetam family, and has an additional anisoyl ring with a methoxy group at the lone para position. (replacing the amine group of piracetam) with an O-methoxy group on the furthest binding point. Its structure is dissimilar to that of oxiracetam (which is quite similar to piracetam) and pramiracetam (a fairly unique structure) Aniracetam is related structurally to nefiracetam.
Aniracetam is thought to increase acetylcholine release within hippocampal cells. As acetycholine is involved in the function of memory, this could potentially account for its nootropic effects.
In addition, aniracetam has been shown to modulate AMPA receptors, GABAergic neurotransmission, and dopaminergic neurotransmission.
In comparison to the effects of other nootropics such as noopept, this compound can be described as focusing primarily on physical stimulation over that of cognitive stimulation. Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Although these effects are not universal, certain people may experience sensory enhancements under the influence of this compound.
- The effects of aniracetam are anecdotally reported to foster creativity and holistic thinking as well as reducing anxiety and depression.
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
Several studies suggest that this substance is safe even when high doses are consumed for a long period of time. although it is worth noting that the exact toxic dosage is unknown. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried aniracetam within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly. However, nothing can be completely guaranteed.
Despite its presumed safety, it is still strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
The median lethal dosage (LD50) of aniracetam has not been officially published as it has low abuse potential, but is not known to be harmful in its recommended dosage.
Tolerance and addiction potential
The chronic use of aniracetam can be considered as non-addictive with a low potential for abuse. It does not seem to be capable of causing psychological dependence among users, although this fact has not been confirmed or supported by clinical studies. Tolerance to many of the effects of aniracetam develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Aniracetam may presents cross-tolerance with all racetam nootropics, meaning that after the consumption of aniracetam certain nootropics such as coluracetam and piracetam may have a reduced effect.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit. Aniracetam showed nonselective MAOI activity in a rat study.  Aniracetam and MAOIs are a potentially dangerous combination. It is likely that MAOIs could increase the effects of aniracetam unpredictably. Taking this chemical while on prescription MAOIs is strongly discouraged.
- MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, and some antidepressants.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
As a member of the racetam family, aniracetam is currently legally available to buy and sell in most countries. However, this may vary by region.
- United Kingdom: Aniracetam is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.
- ↑ Malykh, A. G., Sadaie, M. R. (12 February 2010). "Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders". Drugs. 70 (3): 287–312. doi:10.2165/11319230-000000000-00000. ISSN 1179-1950.
- ↑ Valzelli, L., Baiguerra, G., Giraud, O. (June 1986). "Difference in learning and retention by Albino Swiss mice. Part III. Effect of some brain stimulants". Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 8 (6): 337–341. ISSN 0379-0355.
- ↑ Nootreviews Aniracetam Guide | http://www.nootreviews.com/aniracetam/
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Lee, C. R., Benfield, P. (March 1994). "Aniracetam. An overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders". Drugs & Aging. 4 (3): 257–273. doi:10.2165/00002512-199404030-00007. ISSN 1170-229X.
- ↑ Cumin, R., Bandle, E. F., Gamzu, E., Haefely, W. E. (1982). "Effects of the novel compound aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) upon impaired learning and memory in rodents". Psychopharmacology. 78 (2): 104–111. doi:10.1007/BF00432244. ISSN 0033-3158.
- ↑ Zhao, X., Kuryatov, A., Lindstrom, J. M., Yeh, J. Z., Narahashi, T. (April 2001). "Nootropic drug modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat cortical neurons". Molecular Pharmacology. 59 (4): 674–683. doi:10.1124/mol.59.4.674. ISSN 0026-895X.
- ↑ Kaneko, S., Sugimura, M., Inoue, T., Satoh, M. (19 June 1991). "Effects of several cerebroprotective drugs on NMDA channel function: evaluation using Xenopus oocytes and [3H]MK-801 binding". European Journal of Pharmacology. 207 (2): 119–128. doi:10.1016/0922-4106(91)90086-w. ISSN 0014-2999.
- ↑ Ling, D. S. F., Benardo, L. S. (1 July 2005). "Nootropic Agents Enhance the Recruitment of Fast GABAA Inhibition in Rat Neocortex". Cerebral Cortex. 15 (7): 921–928. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhh191. ISSN 1460-2199.
- ↑ Petkov, V. D., Grahovska, T., Petkov, V. V., Konstantinova, E., Stancheva, S. (1984). "Changes in the brain biogenic monoamines of rats, induced by piracetam and aniracetam". Acta Physiologica Et Pharmacologica Bulgarica. 10 (4): 6–15. ISSN 0323-9950.
- ↑ Stancheva, S. L., Alova, L. G. (June 1988). "[Effect of centrophenoxine, piracetam and aniracetam on the monoamine oxidase activity in different brain structures of rats]". Farmakologiia I Toksikologiia. 51 (3): 16–18. ISSN 0014-8318.
- ↑ Trabucchi, M., Govoni, S., Battaini, F. (April 1986). "Changes in the interaction between CNS cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons induced by L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a cholinomimetic drug". Il Farmaco; Edizione Scientifica. 41 (4): 325–334. ISSN 0430-0920.
- ↑ Gillman, P. K. (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210 . eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647.
- ↑ Psychoactive Substances Act 2016