Datura - PsychonautWiki

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Datura is extremely dangerous and can directly cause severe injury or death.

Datura is highly unpredictable and its use is strongly linked to psychosis, severe injury, and death. Please see this section for more details.

Summary sheet: Datura
Drawing of D. stramonium
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Datura, Jimson Weed
Substitutive name Angel's Trumpets, Devil's Apple, Thorn Apple, Stinkweed, Devil's Weed, Moonflower
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Deliriant
Chemical class Tropane alkaloid
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

Total 8 - 18 hours
Onset 20 - 120 minutes
Come up 60 - 120 minutes
Peak 5 - 12 hours
Offset 2 - 3 hours
After effects 6 - 24 hours

DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.


Datura (also known as devil's trumpet, moonflower, jimsonweed, devil's weed, hell's bells, thorn-apple, and many others) is a genus of nine species of poisonous flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. Daturas are known as powerful and dangerous deliriants, used for shamanic and medical purposes, as well as poisons. They contain the potent anticholinergic substances scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine primarily in their seeds and flowers.[1]

Datura's precise and natural distribution seem to be throughout most of the temperate and tropical regions of the globe, owing to its extensive cultivation and naturalization. The two most well-known species are Datura inoxia and Datura stramonium. Both have been used in a shamanic context for religious purposes on most continents since before recorded history throughout the ancient Americas, Europe, and India.[citation needed]

The toxicity of datura can be highly variable. There can easily be a 5:1 variation in toxins from plant to plant, and a given plant’s toxicity depends on its age, where it is growing, and local weather conditions.[dubious ] These wide variations make datura exceptionally hazardous to use as a substance. An overdose of datura can occur from ingestion of as little as one half teaspoon of seeds.[1]


The principal psychoactive constituents of all datura plants are the tropane alkaloids scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine. These constituents are structurally analogous compounds.

These tropane alkaloids contain a substituted tropane ring, a seven-membered ring with an N-methylated nitrogen bridge between R1 and R5. Scopolamine additionally has an oxygen bonded to R6 and R7 of this bicyclic structure to form a three membered oxirane ring. They also contain a propionic acid chain, CH3CH2COOH, which is substituted at R2 with an aromatic phenyl ring and at R3 with a hydroxyl group OH-. The propionic acid chain is linked at R1 through an oxygen atom to R3 of the substituted tropane ring to form an ether.

These compounds are secondary metabolites synthesized naturally by various plants. The ratio of these compounds in datura plants varies greatly depending on location, growing conditions, etc. The datura genus contains other chemical constituents, but limited research has been done on their properties. Scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine have a stereocenter at R2 of their propionic chain. Hyoscyamine is the levorotorary enantiomer of atropine.



The alkaloids within datura exert their effects by acting as competitive antagonists at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, primarily muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M1 and M2. Although the precise mechanism is not understood, it’s this inhibition of acetylcholine which leads to delirium, sedation and intensely realistic hallucinations alongside of extremely uncomfortable and dysphoric physical side effects.

All parts of Datura plants contain dangerous levels of the tropane alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine, which are classified as deliriants, or anticholinergics. The risk of fatal overdose is high among uninformed users, and many hospitalizations occur among recreational users who ingest the plant for its psychoactive effects. Deliberate or inadvertent poisoning resulting from smoking jimsonweed and other related species has been reported.


Datura stramonium prefers rich, calcareous soil. Adding nitrogen fertilizer to the soil increases the concentration of alkaloids present in the plant. D. stramonium can be grown from seed, which is sown with several feet between plants. It is sensitive to frost, so should be sheltered during cold weather. The plant is harvested when the fruits are ripe, but still green. To harvest, the entire plant is cut down, the leaves are stripped from the plant, and everything is left to dry. When the fruits begin to burst open, the seeds are harvested.

Subjective effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a research literature based on collected anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be regarded with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce a full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely with higher doses and may include addiction, serious injury, or death ☠.

Physical effects

Visual effects

Cognitive effects

Auditory effects

After effects

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Natural plant sources

Due to its extensive cultivation and naturalization throughout the temperate and tropical regions, datura is found in most areas of the world. There are nine identified species:

Toxicity and harm potential


This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As a result, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
Note: Always conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Datura is known to be extremely unpredictable and has the potential to result in severe consequences, hospitalization or death. The toxicity and long-term health effects of regular datura usage do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because long-term datura usage is very rare and the vast majority of people who try it do not desire to repeat the experience.

In traditional cultures, a great deal of experience with and detailed knowledge of datura was critical to minimize harm.[4][5] Many fatal incidents result from modern users ingesting datura. For example, in the 1990s and 2000s, the United States media contained stories of adolescents and young adults dying or becoming seriously ill from intentionally ingesting datura.[6][7] There are also several reports in the medical literature of deaths from D. stramonium and D. ferox intoxication.[8][9][10] Children are especially vulnerable to atropine poisoning and their prognosis is likely to be fatal.[11][12]

In some parts of Europe and India, datura has been a popular poison for suicide and murder. From 1950 to 1965, the State Chemical Laboratories in Agra, India investigated 2,778 deaths caused by ingesting datura.[13][14][15]


Datura has been reported to cause psychosis and delirium at a significantly higher rate than other hallucinogens like LSD, ketamine, or DMT. There are a large number of experience reports online which describe states of psychotic delirium, amnesia, and other serious consequences after abusing the drug. In many cases, it has resulted in hospitalization and death.

Lethal dosage

There can be a 5:1 potency variation between plants and a given plant's toxicity depends on its age, where it is growing, and the local weather conditions. This variation makes datura exceptionally hazardous as a drug and there is no way for the common man to accurately measure the dosage of any given plant. Datura has been used for centuries in some cultures as a poison because of the presence of these substances.[16][17]

The safest way to prevent overdose is to grind the dried plant matter into an extremely fine and even powder so that the active chemicals within them are distributed evenly across itself. From here, one can slowly work their way up in extremely small increments until the correct dose for that particular plant is found.

It is strongly advised that one avoid using datura altogether. Otherwise, extreme caution and harm reduction practices should be used, such as having a sober and prepared trip sitter present throughout the experience.

Tolerance and addiction potential

The use of datura can be considered mildly addictive with a high potential for adverse side effects such as psychosis. Datura is reported to be significantly less addictive than than other substances because the vast majority of people who try it do not wish to repeat the experience.

Tolerance to many of the effects of datura develops with repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Datura presents cross-tolerance with deliriants, meaning that after the consumption of datura, all deliriants will have a reduced effect.

Legal status


This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

Datura grows naturally and is legal to grow, sell and consume in most parts of the world. It is, however, restricted within the following countries:

  • Australia: Datura is a Schedule I poison in Australia[citation needed], but scopolamine is Schedule 4 (Prescription only) and it is in over the counter drugs (Buscopan) to treat symptoms such as nausea, stomach pain and cramps. Datura and Brugsmansia are legal to process, but are illegal to cultivate without a license.[citation needed]
  • Brazil: Datura is illegal to possess and sell in Brazil.[citation needed]
  • United Kingdom: Datura is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[18]

See also

External links



  1. 1.0 1.1 Freye, E. (2009). Toxicity of datura stramonium. In Pharmacology and Abuse of Cocaine, Amphetamines, Ecstasy and Related Designer Drugs (pp. 217-218). Springer, Dordrecht. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2448-0_34
  2. Wood, George B. (1860) A treatise on therapeutics, and pharmacology or materia medica. | http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=hw0DAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA792&lpg=PA792&dq=%22in+one,+producing+blindness+with+large+dilatation+of+the+pupil%22&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false
  3. Hindered vision for a week after consuming Datura. Cs. "Out of Body Delusional Poison: An Experience with Datura (ID 44494)". Erowid.org. Jun 23, 2006. erowid.org/exp/44494 | https://www.erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=44494
  4. Preissel, U.; Preissel, H.-G. (2002). Brugmansia and Datura: Angel's Trumpets and Thorn Apples. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books. pp. 106–129. ISBN 1-55209-598-3.
  5. Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1297503/
  6. Suspected Moonflower Intoxication --- Ohio, 2002 | http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5233a2.htm
  7. Jimson weed users chase high all the way to hospital | http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-11-01-jimson_x.htm
  8. Discussion of "Datura stramonium: a fatal poisoning" (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6502123
  9. Fatal poisoning from ingestion of Datura stramonium seeds (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15080209
  10. Fatal Datura poisoning: identification of atropine and scopolamine by high performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array/mass spectrometry | http://www.fsijournal.org/article/S0379-0738(04)00171-9/abstract
  11. Datura intoxication in Riyadh (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6710568
  12. Acute intoxication with "sobi-lobi" (Datura). Four cases in Niger (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11204734
  13. Preissel, U.; Preissel, H.-G. (2002). Brugmansia and Datura: Angel's Trumpets and Thorn Apples. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books. pp. 106–129. ISBN 1-55209-598-3.
  14. Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1297503/
  15. Daturas | http://www.sleuthsayers.org/2012/02/daturas.html
  16. Preissel, U.; Preissel, H.-G. (2002). Brugmansia and Datura: Angel's Trumpets and Thorn Apples. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books. pp. 106–129. ISBN 1-55209-598-3.
  17. Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1297503/
  18. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted