Motivation depression (also known as avolition or amotivation) is defined as a decreased desire to initiate or persist in goal-directed behavior. Motivation depression prevents an individual the ability to sustain the rewarding value of an action into an uncertain future; this includes tasks deemed challenging or unpleasant, such as working, studying, cleaning, and doing general chores. At its higher levels, motivation depression can cause one to lose their desire to engage in any activities, even the ones that would usually be considered entertaining or rewarding to the user. This effect can lead onto severe states of boredom and even mild depression when experienced at a high level of intensity for prolonged periods of time.
Motivation suppression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as sedation and thought deceleration. It is most commonly induced under the influence of an acute dosage of an antipsychotic compound, such as quetiapine, haloperidol, and risperidone. However, it is worth noting that chronic treatment with any dose of antipsychotic medication does not cause this effect. It can also occur under the influence of heavy dosages of cannabinoids and benzodiazepines, as a result of long-term SSRI usage, during the offset of stimulants, and during the withdrawal symptoms of almost any compound.
Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:
Annectdotal reports which describe this effect with our experience index include:
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Fervaha, Gagan; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Jimmy; Foussias, George; Fletcher, Paul J; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary (2015). "Antipsychotics and Amotivation". Neuropsychopharmacology. 40 (6): 1539–1548. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.3. ISSN 0893-133X.
- ↑ Lee, Jung; Jung, Suwon; Park, Il; Kim, Jae-Jin (2015). "Neural Basis of Anhedonia and Amotivation in Patients with Schizophrenia: The Role of Reward System". Current Neuropharmacology. 13 (6): 750–759. doi:10.2174/1570159X13666150612230333. ISSN 1570-159X.
- ↑ Barch, D. M.; Dowd, E. C. (2010). "Goal Representations and Motivational Drive in Schizophrenia: The Role of Prefrontal-Striatal Interactions". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 36 (5): 919–934. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq068. ISSN 0586-7614.
- ↑ Artaloytia, Juan Francisco; Arango, Celso; Lahti, Adrienne; Sanz, Javier; Pascual, Ana; Cubero, Pedro; Prieto, David; Palomo, Tomás (2006). "Negative Signs and Symptoms Secondary to Antipsychotics: A Double-Blind, Randomized Trial of a Single Dose of Placebo, Haloperidol, and Risperidone in Healthy Volunteers". American Journal of Psychiatry. 163 (3): 488–493. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.488. ISSN 0002-953X.
- ↑ Saeedi, H; Remington, G; Christensen, B (2006). "Impact of haloperidol, a dopamine D2 antagonist, on cognition and mood". Schizophrenia Research. 85 (1-3): 222–231. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.03.033. ISSN 0920-9964.
- ↑ Lawn, Will; Freeman, Tom P; Pope, Rebecca A; Joye, Alyssa; Harvey, Lisa; Hindocha, Chandni; Mokrysz, Claire; Moss, Abigail; Wall, Matthew B; Bloomfield, Michael AP; Das, Ravi K; Morgan, Celia JA; Nutt, David J; Curran, H Valerie (2016). "Acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on effort-related decision-making and reward learning: an evaluation of the cannabis 'amotivational' hypotheses". Psychopharmacology. 233 (19-20): 3537–3552. doi:10.1007/s00213-016-4383-x. ISSN 0033-3158.
- ↑ Starcevic, Vladan (2014). "The reappraisal of benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety and related disorders". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 14 (11): 1275–1286. doi:10.1586/14737175.2014.963057. ISSN 1473-7175.