3-MMC - PsychonautWiki
Summary sheet: 3-MMC
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 3-MMC, Metaphedrone
Substitutive name 3-Methylmethcathinone
Systematic name (RS)-2-​(Methylamino)-​1-​(3-​methylphenyl)-​1-​propanone
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant / Entactogen
Chemical class Cathinone
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

Threshold 25 mg
Light 50 - 150 mg
Common 150 - 250 mg
Strong 250 - 350 mg
Heavy 350 mg +
Total 4 - 6 hours
Onset 10 - 30 minutes
Come up 30 - 60 minutes
Peak 2 - 3 hours
Offset 1 - 1.5 hours
After effects 2 - 4 hours

Threshold 10 mg
Light 20 - 40 mg
Common 40 - 60 mg
Strong 60 - 120 mg
Heavy 120 mg +
Total 2.5 - 4.5 hours
Onset 5 - 10 minutes
Come up 10 - 20 minutes
Peak 1 - 1.5 hours
Offset 1 - 2 hours
After effects 1 - 1.5 hours

Bioavailability ~100%
Threshold < 10 mg
Light 10 - 25 mg
Common 25 - 50 mg
Strong 50 - 100 mg
Heavy 100 mg+
Total 2.0 - 4.0 hours
Onset 15 - 30 seconds
Come up 1 - 2 minutes
Peak 1 - 1.5 hours
Offset 1 - 2 hours
After effects 1 - 2 hours

DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Serotonin releasers

3-Methylmethcathinone (also known as 3-MMC or metaphedrone[1]) is a novel stimulant-entactogen substance of the cathinone class. It is a structural analog of mephedrone (4-MMC) and was created as a legal designer drug after the banning of 4-MMC. The mechanism of action is not fully studied, but dopamine and serotonin and norepinephrine releasing activity is known to be involved.

3-MMC first appeared on the online research chemical market shortly after the banning of the massively popular mephedrone. Its first emergence was recorded in Europe in 2012[2]. It is a prominent example of a contemporary designer drug specifically chosen to mimic and/or replace the functional and structural features of its recently-controlled predecessors.

Subjective effects include stimulation, anxiety suppression, disinhibition, enhanced empathy and sociability, relaxation, increased libido, and euphoria. The effects are reported to be similar to those of mephedrone, which is sometimes described as a hybrid of MDMA and cocaine.

However, it is described as being slightly less entactogenic and more stimulating than mephedrone, and some report more side effects. Like mephedrone and cocaine, it is associated with compulsive redosing and abuse due to its powerful, short-lived euphoric rush. It is typically administered via insufflation, although oral and injection routes have been observed.

Limited data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 3-MMC, and it has little history of human use.[citation needed] Preliminary evidence suggests chronic use (i.e. high dose, repeat administration) may carry neurotoxic and cardiotoxic risks.[citation needed] It is reported to produce the symptoms of serotonin depletion with overuse.

It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.


3-MMC, or 3-Methylmethcathinone, belongs to a class of synthetic organic compounds known as cathinones. Cathinones are a sub-category of amphetamines, meaning they share the core amphetamine structure of a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain, and an additional methyl substitution at Rα.

Cathinones are differentiated by their ketone substitution on the beta carbon of the amphetamine skeleton, meaning they are β-keto-amphetamines. 3-MMC has two methyl substitutions on its cathinone skeleton, one at R3 of the phenyl ring, and a second at the nitrogen group RN.

It is a structural analog of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), meaning it is identical in structure except for the placement of the methyl group at R4 instead of R3

It is a chiral compound with a stereocenter at R2 of the propane side-chain. Two enantiomers exist: R-3-MMC and S-3-MMC. Due to the similarity with cathinone proper, the S form is thought to be more potent than the R form[citation needed].

The hydrochloride salt of 3-MMC occurs as a white crystalline powder. It has a melting point of 193.2 ± 0.2°C (hydrochloride salt) and a boiling point of 280.5 ± 23.0°C at 760 mm Hg. It is sparingly soluble in PBS; slightly soluble in ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethyl formamide[citation needed].


Due to the lack of research regarding the substance, all discussion regarding the pharmacology of it is purely speculation based upon its structure and subjective effect similarities to other entactogens and stimulants such as mephedrone, amphetamine and 2-FMA.

3-MMC most likely acts as a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. This means that it effectively boosts the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove them from the synaptic cleft. This allows the neurotransmitters to accumulate in the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.[citation needed]

Subjective effects

This subjective effects section is a stub.

As such, it is still in progress and may contain incomplete or wrong information.

You can help by expanding or correcting it.

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.

It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.

Physical effects

Cognitive effects

Visual effects

After effects

Experience reports

There are currently 2 experience reports which describe the effects of this substance in our experience index.

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Reagent results

Exposing compounds to the reagents gives a colour change which is indicative of the compound under test.

Marquis Mecke Mandelin Liebermann Froehde Gallic Ehrlich Hofmann Simon's Zimmermann
Yellowish No reaction No reaction Orange - Yellow Yellowish No reaction No reaction No reaction Blue Purple ring/brown

Toxicity and harm potential


This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As a result, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information! You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
Note: Always conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

As with most research chemicals, the long-term effects of 3-MMC have not been researched extensively enough to provide accurate information of its risks and harm.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Dependence and abuse potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 3-MMC can be considered extremely addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage. It is said that this compound is considerably more addictive than that of mephedrone.

Tolerance to many of the effects of 3-MMC develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 3-MMC presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 3-MMC all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).

Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.

  • 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - 25x compounds are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with 3-MMC should be strictly avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation and heart strain. This can result in increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Combining alcohol with stimulants can be dangerous due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask alcohol's depressant effects, which is what most people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects will be left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and severe respiratory depression. If mixing, the user should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - Combinations with DXM should be avoided due to its inhibiting effects on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. There is an increased risk of panic attacks and hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome with serotonin releasers (MDMA, methylone, mephedrone, etc.). Monitor blood pressure carefully and avoid strenuous physical activity.
  • MDMA - Any neurotoxic effects of MDMA are likely to be increased when other stimulants are present. There is also a risk of excessive blood pressure and heart strain (cardiotoxicity).
  • MXE - Some reports suggest combinations with MXE may dangerously increase blood pressure and increase the risk of mania and psychosis.
  • Dissociatives - Both classes carry a risk of delusions, mania and psychosis, and these risk may be multiplied when combined.
  • Stimulants - 3-MMC may be dangerous to combine with other stimulants like cocaine as they can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol is known to lower the seizure threshold[5] and combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations with the following substances can cause dangerously high serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome requires immediate medical attention and can be fatal if left untreated.

Legal status

  • Austria: 3-MMC is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).[citation needed]
  • Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[7]
  • China: Since October 2015, 3-MMC has been banned (along with many other chemicals) in China. Due to this ban, many chemicals have become increasingly difficult to attain since the manufacturing was mainly done by Chinese chemical companies.[8]
  • Czech Republic: 3-MMC is banned in the Czech Republic.[9]
  • Germany: 3-MMC is controlled under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I)[10] as of December 13, 2014.[11] It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.[12]
  • Poland: 3-MMC is classified as a “II-P category drug” as of April 25th, 2024, making it illegal. [13]
  • Sweden: 3-MMC is classified as a narcotic substance.[14]
  • Switzerland: 3-MMC can be considered a controlled substance as a defined derivative of Cathinone under Verzeichnis E point 1. It is legal when used for scientific or industrial use.[15]
  • Turkey: 3-MMC is a classed as drug and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import.[16] [17]
  • The Netherlands: Since October 2021, 3-MMC is classified as a "List 2" drug which makes it illegal.
  • United Kingdom: 3-MMC is a Class B drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the cathinone catch-all clause.[18]
  • United States: 3-MMC is not formally listed but is categorized by the DEA as a Schedule I Positional Isomer. [1]

See also

External links



  1. Adamowicz, P., Gieroń, J., Gil, D., Lechowicz, W., Skulska, A., Tokarczyk, B. (May 2016). "3-Methylmethcathinone—Interpretation of Blood Concentrations Based on Analysis of 95 Cases". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 40 (4): 272–276. doi:10.1093/jat/bkw018. ISSN 0146-4760. 
  2. World Health Organisation, Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (October 2022), Critical review report: 3-Methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) (PDF) 
  3. Assi, S., Gulyamova, N., Kneller, P., Osselton, D. (May 2017). "The effects and toxicity of cathinones from the users' perspectives: A qualitative study". Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental. 32 (3): e2610. doi:10.1002/hup.2610. ISSN 0885-6222. 
  4. Urban Dictionary: gurning 
  5. Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. eISSN 1937-6995. ISSN 1556-9039. OCLC 163567183. 
  6. Gillman, P. K. (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210 . eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647. 
  7. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/33868/3233596/55+-+RDC+N%C2%BA+143-2017-DOU.pdf/de80dc69-acb4-48b3-a6ac-1198993b0c1e
  8. 关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知 | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
  9. https://www.zakonyprolidi.cz/cs/2013-463
  10. "Anlage I BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 25, 2019. 
  11. "Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (PDF) (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 25, 2019. 
  12. "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 25, 2019. 
  13. https://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20240000536/O/D20240536.pdf
  14. http://rkrattsbaser.gov.se/sfst?fritext=3-MMC&upph=false&sort=desc
  15. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  16. Başbakanlık Mevzuatı Geliştirme ve Yayın Genel Müdürlüğü 
  17. https://resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2014/01/20140125-3-1.pdf
  18. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2010