Cognitive enhancements are defined as any subjective effect which increases or raises the intensity of a facet of a person's cognition.
This page lists and describes the various cognitive enhancements which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.
Analysis enhancement is defined as a perceived improvement of a person's overall ability to logically process information or creatively analyze concepts, ideas, and scenarios. This effect can lead to a deep state of contemplation which often results in an abundance of new and insightful ideas. It can give the person a perceived ability to better analyze concepts and problems in a manner which allows them to reach new conclusions, perspectives, and solutions which would have been otherwise difficult to conceive of.
Although this effect will often result in deep states of introspection, in other cases it can produce states which are not introspective but instead result in a deep analysis of the exterior world, both taken as a whole and as the things which comprise it. This can result in a perceived abundance of insightful ideas and conclusions with powerful themes pertaining to what is often described as "the bigger picture". These ideas generally involve (but are not limited to) insight into philosophy, science, spirituality, society, culture, universal progress, humanity, loved ones, the finite nature of our lives, history, the present moment, and future possibilities.
Cognitive performance is undeniably linked to personality, and it has been repeatedly shown that psychedelics alter a user's personality for the long term. Experienced psychedelics users score significantly better than controls on several psychometric measures.
Analysis enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation, personal bias suppression, conceptual thinking, and thought connectivity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and nootropic compounds, such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, nicotine, and caffeine. However, it can also occur in a more powerful although less consistent form under the influence of psychedelics such as certain LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline.
Anxiety is medically recognized as the experience of negative feelings of apprehension, worry, and general unease. These feelings can range from subtle and ignorable to intense and overwhelming enough to trigger panic attacks or feelings of impending doom. Anxiety is often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as stimulation, restlessness, difficulty concentrating, irritability, and muscular tension.
Fear is the emotional response to real or perceived imminent threat, whereas anxiety is anticipation of future threat. Obviously, these two states overlap, but they also differ, with fear more often associated with surges of autonomic arousal necessary for fight or flight, thoughts of immediate danger, and escape behaviors, and anxiety more often associated with muscle tension and vigilance in preparation for future danger and cautious or avoidant behaviors. This focus of anticipated danger may be internally or externally derived.
Psychoactive substance-induced anxiety can be caused as an inescapable effect of the drug itself, by a lack of experience with the substance or its intensity, as an enhancement of a pre-existing state of mind, or by the experience of negative hallucinations.
Anxiety is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as depression and irritability. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as cannabinoids, psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. However, it can also occur during the withdrawal symptoms of GABAergic depressants and during stimulant comedowns.
Creativity enhancement is defined as a perceived increase in one's capability to imagine new ideas, create art, or think about existing concepts in a novel manner. This effect is particularly useful to artists of any sort as it can help a person overcome creative blocks on existing projects and induce inspiration for entirely new projects. Creativity enhancement can make imaginative activities more enjoyable and effortless in the moment and the inspiration from it can benefit the individual even after the effect has worn off.
A well-known example of psychedelic creativity enhancement comes from the Nobel Prize winning chemist Dr. Kary Mullis, who invented a method for copying DNA segments known as the PCR and is quoted as saying: "Would I have invented PCR if I hadn't taken LSD? I seriously doubt it. I could sit on a DNA molecule and watch the polymers go by. I learned that partly on psychedelic drugs". In addition, although dubious, it has been claimed Francis Crick experimented with LSD during the time he helped elucidate the structure of DNA. Additionally, many artists (such as The Beatles) have attributed creativity enhancing properties to psychedelics like LSD.
Creativity enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as thought connectivity, motivation enhancement, personal bias suppression, analysis enhancement, and thought acceleration in a manner which further amplifies a person's creativity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of cannabinoids, dissociatives, and stimulants.
Dream potentiation is defined as an effect which increases the subjective intensity, vividness, and frequency of sleeping dream states. This effect also results in dreams having a more complex and incohesive plot with a higher level of detail and definition. Additionally, the effect causes a greatly increased likelihood of them becoming lucid dreams.
Dream potentiation is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of oneirogenic compounds, a class of hallucinogen that is used to specifically potentiate dreams when taken before sleep. However, it can also occur as a residual side effect from falling asleep under the influence of an extremely wide variety of substances. At other times, it can occur as a relatively persistent effect that has arisen as a symptom of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD).
Ego inflation is defined as an effect that magnifies and enhances one's own ego and self-regard in a manner which results in feeling an increased sense of confidence, superiority, and general arrogance. During this state, it can often feel that one is considerably more intelligent, important, and capable in comparison to those around them. This occurs in a manner which is similar to the psychiatric condition known as narcissistic personality disorder.
At lower levels, this experience can result in an enhanced ability to handle social situations due to a heightened sense of confidence. However, at higher levels, it can result in a reduced ability to handle social situations due to magnifying egoistic behavioural traits that may come across as distinctly obnoxious, narcissistic, and selfish to other people.
It is worth noting that regular and repeated long-term exposure to this effect can leave certain individuals with persistent behavioural traits of ego inflation, even when sober, within their day to day life.
Ego inflation is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as disinhibition, irritability, and paranoia in a manner which can lead to destructive behaviors and violent tendencies. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant compounds, particularly dopaminergic stimulants such as amphetamines, and cocaine. However, it may also occur under the influence of other compounds such as GABAergic depressants and certain dissociatives.
Unlike many other subjective effects such as euphoria or anxiety, this effect does not actively induce specific emotions regardless of a person's current state of mind and mental stability. Instead, it works by passively amplifying and enhancing the genuine emotions that a person is already feeling prior to ingesting the drug or prior to the onset of this effect. This causes emotion enhancement to be equally capable of manifesting in both a positive and negative direction. This effect highlights the importance of set and setting when using psychedelics in a therapeutic context, especially if the goal is to produce a catharsis.
For example, an individual who is currently feeling somewhat anxious or emotionally unstable may become overwhelmed with intensified negative emotions, paranoia, and confusion. In contrast, an individual who is generally feeling positive and emotionally stable is more likely to find themselves overwhelmed with states of emotional euphoria, happiness, and feelings of general contentment. The intensity of emotional states felt under emotion enhancement can shape the tone of a trip and predispose the user to other effects, such as mania or unity in positive states and thought loops or feelings of impending doom in negative states. Intense negative or difficult emotions may still arise in therapeutic contexts, however (with adequate support) people nevertheless view the experience positively due to the perceived value of integrating the emotional states' additional insight.
Emotion enhancement is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur under the influence of cannabinoids, GABAergic depressants, and stimulants.
Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement
Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement is defined as the experience of a mind state which is dominated by intense feelings of compassion, talkativeness, and happiness. The experience of this effect creates a wide range of subjective changes to a person's perception of their feelings towards other people and themselves. These are described and documented in the list below:
- Increased sociability and the feeling that communication comes easier and more naturally.
- Increased urge to communicate or express one's affectionate feelings towards others, even if they happen to be strangers.
- Increased feelings of empathy, love, and connection with others.
- Increased motivation to resolve social conflicts and improve interpersonal relationships.
- Decreased negative emotions and mental states such as stress, anxiety, and fear.
- Decreased insecurity, defensiveness, and fear of emotional injury or rejection from others.
- Decreased irritability, aggression, anger, and jealousy.
Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation, personal bias suppression, motivation enhancement, and anxiety suppression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of entactogenic compounds such as MDMA, 4-FA, and 2C-B. However, it can also subtly occur to a much lesser extent under the influence of GABAergic depressants, and certain stimulants.
Focus enhancement is defined as the experience of an increased ability to selectively concentrate on an aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. It can be best characterized by feelings of intense concentration which can allow one to continuously focus on and perform tasks which would otherwise be considered too monotonous, boring, or dull to not get distracted from.
The degree of focus induced by this effect can be much stronger than what a person is capable of sober. It can allow for hours of effortless, single-minded, and continuous focus on a particular activity to the exclusion of all other considerations such as eating and attending to bodily functions. However, although focus enhancement can improve a person’s ability to engage in tasks and use time effectively, it is worth noting that it can also cause a person to focus intensely and spend excess time on unimportant activities.
Focus enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as motivation enhancement, thought acceleration, and stimulation. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and nootropic compounds such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine. However, it is worth noting that the same compounds which induce this mind state at moderate dosages will also often result in the opposite effect of focus suppression at heavier dosages.
Immersion enhancement is defined as an effect which results in a pronounced increase in one's tendency to become fully captivated and engrossed by external stimuli such as music, film, TV shows, video games, and various other forms of media. This greatly increases one's suspension of disbelief, increases one’s empathy with the characters, suppresses one's memory of the "outside world", and allows one to become engaged on a level that is largely unattainable during everyday sober living.
At its highest point of intensity, immersion enhancement can reach a level in which the person begins to truly believe that the media they are consuming is a real-life event that is actually happening in front of them or is being relayed through a screen. This is likely a result of the effect synergizing with other accompanying components such as internal or external hallucinations, delusions, memory suppression, and suggestibility enhancement. Immersion enhancement often exaggerates the emotional response a person has towards media they are engaged with. Whether or not this experience is enjoyable can differ drastically depending on various factors such as the emotional tone and familiarity of what is being perceived.
Immersion enhancement is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of dissociative compounds, such as ketamine, PCP, and DXM. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of psychedelics and cannabinoids.
Increased music appreciation
Increased music appreciation is defined as a general sense of an increased enjoyment of music. When music is listened to during this state, not only does it subjectively sound better, but the perceived music and lyrical content may have a profound impact on the listener.
This experience can give one a sense of hyper-awareness of every sound, lyric, melody, and complex layer of noise within a song in addition to an enhanced ability to individually comprehend their significance and interplay. The perceived emotional intent of the musician and the meaning of the music may also be felt in a greater level clarity than that which is attainable during everyday sober living. This effect can result in the belief, legitimate or delusional, that one has connected with the “true meaning” or “spirit” behind an artist’s song. During particularly enjoyable songs, this effect can result in feelings of overwhelming harmony and a general sense of appreciation that can leave the person with a deep sense of connection towards the artist they are listening to.
Increased music appreciation is commonly mistaken as a purely auditory effect but is more likely the result of several coinciding components such as novelty enhancement, personal meaning enhancement, emotion enhancement, and auditory enhancement. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and cannabinoids. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of stimulants and GABAergic depressants.
Increased sense of humor
Increased sense of humor is defined as a general enhancement of the likelihood and degree to which a person finds stimuli to be humorous and amusing. During this state, a person's sensitivity to finding things funny is noticeably amplified, often to the point that they will begin uncontrollably laughing at trivial things without any intelligible reason or apparent cause.
In group settings, the experience of witnessing another person who is laughing intensely for no apparent reason can itself become a contagious trigger which induces semi-uncontrollable laughter within the people around them. In extreme cases, this can often form a lengthy feedback loop in which people begin to laugh hysterically at the absurdity of not being able to stop laughing and not knowing what started the laughter to begin with.
Increased sense of humor is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as emotion enhancement and novelty enhancement. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of certain hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, mescaline, and cannabinoids. However, it can also occur to a much lesser extent under the influence of stimulants, GABAergic depressants, and dissociatives.
Irritability is medically recognized as the pervasive and sustained emotional state of being easily annoyed and provoked to anger. It may be expressed outwardly in the cases of violence towards others, or directed inwards towards oneself in the form of self-harm.
This effect, especially when strong, can sometimes cause violent or aggressive outbursts in a small subset of people who may be predisposed to it. The chances of somebody responding in such a way differs wildly between people and depends on how susceptible an individual is to irritability and how well they cope with it. It is also worth noting that this typically only affects those who were already susceptible to aggressive behaviours. However, regardless of the person, this effect results in a lower ability to tolerate frustrations, negative stimuli, and other people. A person undergoing this effect may be prone to lashing out at others, fits of anger, or other behaviours that would be uncharacteristic for them sober.
Irritability is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety, paranoia, and ego inflation. It is most commonly induced during the after effects of heavy dosages of stimulant compounds, such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and methylphenidate. However, it can be a withdrawal symptom of almost any substance, and can to a lesser extent present itself during alcohol intoxication.
Memory enhancement is defined as an improvement in a person's ability to recall or retain memories. The experience of this effect can make it easier for a person to access and remember past memories at a greater level of detail when compared to that of everyday sober living. It can also help one retain new information that may then be more easily recalled once the person is no longer under the influence of the psychoactive substance.
Memory enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as analysis enhancement and thought acceleration. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and nootropic compounds, such as methylphenidate, caffeine, Noopept, nicotine, and modafinil.
Different substances can enhance different kinds of memory with some considerable overlap. Generally, there are three types:
- Long-term memory: A vast store of knowledge and a record of prior events.
- Short-term memory: Faculties of the human mind that can hold a limited amount of information in a very accessible state temporarily.
- Working memory: Information used to plan and carry out behavior. Not completely distinct from short-term memory, it's generally viewed as the combination of multiple components working together. Measures of working memory have been found to correlate with intellectual aptitudes (and especially fluid intelligence) better than measures of short-term memory and, in fact, possibly better than measures of any other particular psychological process. Both storage and processing have to be engaged concurrently to assess working memory capacity, which relates it to cognitive aptitude.
Motivation enhancement is defined as an increased desire to perform tasks and accomplish goals in a productive manner. This includes tasks and goals that would normally be considered too monotonous or overwhelming to fully commit oneself to.
A number of factors (which often, but not always, co-occur) reflect or contribute to task motivation: namely, wanting to complete a task, enjoying it or being interested in it. Motivation may also be supported by closely related factors, such as positive mood, alertness, energy, and the absence of anxiety. Although motivation is a state, there are trait-like differences in the motivational states that people typically bring to tasks, just as there are differences in cognitive ability.
Motivation enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation and thought acceleration in a manner which further increases one's productivity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and nootropic compounds, such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, nicotine, and modafinil. However, it may also occur to a much lesser extent under the influence of certain opioids, and GABAergic depressants.
Novelty enhancement is defined as a feeling of increased fascination, awe, and appreciation attributed to specific parts or the entirety of one's external environment. This can result in an often overwhelming impression that everyday concepts such as nature, existence, common events, and even household objects are now considerably more profound, interesting, and significant.
The experience of this effect commonly forces those who undergo it to acknowledge, consider, and appreciate the things around them in a level of detail and intensity which remains largely unparalleled throughout every day sobriety. It is often generally described using phrases such as "a sense of wonder" or "seeing the world as new".
Novelty enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as personal bias suppression, emotion enhancement and spirituality enhancement in a manner which further intensifies the experience. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of cannabinoids, dissociatives, and entactogens.
Personal meaning enhancement
Personal meaning enhancement (also known as aberrant salience) is defined as the experience of a considerably increased sense of personal significance becoming attributed to innocuous situations, and coincidences. Trivial observations not usually noticed may seem connected, and a subjective state of "seeing solutions" might evolve to one of seeing problems, ultimately arriving at a full-fledged paranoid psychosis. For example, one may feel that the lyrics of a song or events in a film directly relate to their life in a meaningful and distinct manner that is not usually felt during everyday sobriety. This feeling can continue to occur even when it is rationally understood that the external stimuli does not genuinely relate to the person experiencing it in such a direct manner.
At its highest level, this effect will often synergize with delusions in a manner which can result in one genuinely believing that innocuous events are directly related to them. For example, one may begin to believe that the plot of a film is about their life or that a song was written for them. This phenomenon is well established within psychiatry and is commonly known as a "delusion of reference."
Suggestibility enhancement is defined as an increased tendency to accept and act on the ideas or attitudes of others. A common example of suggestibility enhancement in action would be a trip sitter deliberately making a person believe a false statement without question simply by telling it to them as true, even if the statement would usually be easily recognizable as impossible or absurd. If this is successfully accomplished, it can potentially result in the experience of relevant accompanying hallucinations and delusions which further solidify the belief which has been suggested to them.
Suggestibility enhancement most commonly occurs under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, deliriants, and cannabinoids. This holds particularly true for users who are inexperienced or currently undergoing delusions and memory suppression. It's worth noting that this effect has been studied extensively by the scientific literature and has a relatively large body of data confirming its presence across multiple hallucinogens. These include LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, cannabis, ketamine, and nitrous oxide. However, anecdotal reports suggest that it may also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of GABAergic depressants such as alcohol and benzodiazepines.
Thought acceleration (also known as racing thoughts) is defined as the experience of thought processes being sped up significantly in comparison to that of everyday sobriety. When experiencing this effect, it will often feel as if one rapid-fire thought after the other is being generated in incredibly quick succession. Thoughts while undergoing this effect are not necessarily qualitatively different, but greater in their volume and speed. However, they are commonly associated with a change in mood that can be either positive or negative.
Thought acceleration is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation, anxiety, and analysis enhancement in a manner which not only increases the speed of thought, but also significantly enhances the sharpness of a person's mental clarity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and nootropic compounds, such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, modafinil, and MDMA. However, it can also occur under the influence of certain stimulating psychedelics such as LSD, 2C-E, DOC, AMT.
Thought connectivity is defined as an alteration of a person's thought stream which is characterized by a distinct increase in unconstrained wandering thoughts which connect into each other through a fluid association of ideas. During this state, thoughts may be subjectively experienced as a continuous stream of vaguely related ideas which tenuously connect into each other by incorporating a concept that was contained within the previous thought. When experienced, it is often likened to a complex game of word association.
During this state, it is often difficult for the person to consciously guide the direction of their thoughts in a manner that leads into a state of increased distractibility. This will usually also result in one's train of thought contemplating an extremely broad variety of subjects, which can range from important, trivial, insightful, and nonsensical topics.
Thought connectivity is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as thought acceleration and creativity enhancement. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of dissociatives, stimulants, and cannabinoids.
Thought organization (also known as fluid intelligence) is defined as a state of mind in which one's ability to analyze and categorize conceptual information using a systematic and logical thought process is considerably increased. It seemingly occurs through reducing thoughts which are unrelated or irrelevant to the topic at hand, therefore improving one's capacity for a structured and cohesive thought stream. This effect also seems to allow the person to hold a greater amount of relevant information (as evidenced by language comprehension increases) in their train of thought which can be useful for extended mental calculations, articulating ideas, and analyzing logical arguments.
Thought organization is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as analysis enhancement and thought connectivity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of mild dosages of stimulant and nootropic compounds, such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, and Noopept. However, this effect can occur to a lesser extent under the influence of certain cannabis strains and spontaneously during psychedelic states. It is also worth noting that the same compounds which induce this mind state at light to moderate dosages can often result in the opposite effect of thought disorganization at heavier dosages.
Wakefulness is defined as an increased ability to stay conscious without feeling sleepy combined with a decreased need to sleep. It is contrasted with stimulation in that it does not directly increase one's energy levels above a normal baseline but instead produces feelings of a wakeful, well-rested, and alert state. If one is sleepy before using this substance, the impulse to sleep will fade, keeping one’s eyes open will become easier, and the cognitive fog of exhaustion will be reduced. However, sufficiently accumulated sleep deficiency can overpower or negate this effect in extreme cases.
Wakefulness is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of compounds such as stimulants, nootropics, and psychedelics. However, it is worth noting that the few compounds which selectively induce this effect without a number of other accompanying effects are referred to as eugeroics or wakefulness-promoting agents. These include modafinil and armodafinil.
- Fillmore, Mark T.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Martin, Catherine A. (2005). "Effects of d-amphetamine in human models of information processing and inhibitory control". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 77 (2): 151–159. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.07.013. ISSN 0376-8716.
- Bättig, K.; Buzzi, R. (1986). "Effect of Coffee on the Speed of Subject-Paced Information Processing". Neuropsychobiology. 16 (2-3): 126–130. doi:10.1159/000118312. ISSN 0302-282X.
- Warburton, David; Bersellini, Elisabetta; Sweeney, Eve (2001). "An evaluation of a caffeinated taurine drink on mood, memory and information processing in healthy volunteers without caffeine abstinence". Psychopharmacology. 158 (3): 322–328. doi:10.1007/s002130100884. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Humphreys, Michael S.; Revelle, William (1984). "Personality, motivation, and performance: A theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing". Psychological Review. 91 (2): 153–184. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.91.2.153. ISSN 1939-1471.
- Bouso, José Carlos; Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Sanches, Rafael; Crippa, José Alexandre S.; Hallak, Jaime E.C.; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Riba, Jordi (2015). "Long-term use of psychedelic drugs is associated with differences in brain structure and personality in humans". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 25 (4): 483–492. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.01.008. ISSN 0924-977X.
- "Glossary of Technical Terms". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 189–190. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms.
- "Anxiety Disorders". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 818. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm05.
- Barkus, Christopher; McHugh, Stephen B.; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Bannerman, David M. (2010). "Hippocampal NMDA receptors and anxiety: At the interface between cognition and emotion". European Journal of Pharmacology. 626 (1): 49–56. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.10.014. ISSN 0014-2999.
- Crippa, José Alexandre; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Martín-Santos, Rocio; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Atakan, Zerrin; McGuire, Philip; Fusar-Poli, Paolo (2009). "Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence". Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental. 24 (7): 515–523. doi:10.1002/hup.1048. ISSN 0885-6222.
- Wolbach, A. B.; Miner, E. J.; Isbell, Harris (1962). "Comparison of psilocin with psilocybin, mescaline and LSD-25". Psychopharmacologia. 3 (3): 219–223. doi:10.1007/BF00412109. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Datura effects (Erowid) | https://erowid.org/plants/datura/datura_effects.shtml
- "Rebound anxiety in anxious patients after abrupt withdrawal of benzodiazepine treatment". American Journal of Psychiatry. 141 (7): 848–852. 1984. doi:10.1176/ajp.141.7.848. ISSN 0002-953X.
- Williamson, S (1997). "Adverse effects of stimulant drugs in a community sample of drug users". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 44 (2-3): 87–94. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(96)01324-5. ISSN 0376-8716.
- Iszáj, Fruzsina; Griffiths, Mark D.; Demetrovics, Zsolt (2016). "Creativity and Psychoactive Substance Use: A Systematic Review". International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 15 (5): 1135–1149. doi:10.1007/s11469-016-9709-8. ISSN 1557-1874.
- What exactly is creativity? (American Psychological Association) | http://www.apa.org/monitor/nov03/creativity.aspx
- Can psychedelic drugs increase creativity? (MAPS) | https://www.maps.org/news/multimedia-library/3171-can-psychedelic-drugs-enhance-creativity
- Hongbao, Ma. "Development application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)." J. Am. Sci 1.3 (2005): 4-5. | http://www.sciencepub.net/american/0103/01-0198-%20mahongbao-am.pdf
- Brooks, M. (2012). Free radicals: The secret anarchy of science. The Overlook Press. https://books.google.com/books?id=nDMjCQAAQBAJ&lpg=PT142&ots=-yvt2yhPqk&dq=He%20listened%20with%20rapt%2C%20amused%20attention%20to%20what%20I%20told%20him%20about%20the%20role%20of%20LSD%20in%20his%20Nobel%20Prize-winning%20discovery.%20He%20gave%20no%20intimation%20of%20surprise.%20When%20I%20had%20finished%2C%20he%20said%3A%20'Print%20a%20word%20of%20it%20and%20I'll%20sue.'&pg=PT142#v=onepage&q=He%20listened%20with%20rapt,%20amused%20attention%20to%20what%20I%20told%20him%20about%20the%20role%20of%20LSD%20in%20his%20Nobel%20Prize-winning%20discovery.%20He%20gave%20no%20intimation%20of%20surprise.%20When%20I%20had%20finished,%20he%20said:%20'Print%20a%20word%20of%20it%20and%20I'll%20sue&f=false
- Sessa, B. (2008). "Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity?". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 22 (8): 821–827. doi:10.1177/0269881108091597. ISSN 0269-8811.
- Krippiwr, Stanley (2008). "Research in creativity and psychedelic drugs". International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 25 (4): 274–290. doi:10.1080/00207147708415985. ISSN 0020-7144.
- Krippner, Stanley (1985). "Psychedelic Drugs and Creativity". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 17 (4): 235–246. doi:10.1080/02791072.1985.10524328. ISSN 0279-1072.
- Green, Bob; Kavanagh, David; Young, Ross (2003). "Being stoned: a review of self-reported cannabis effects". Drug and Alcohol Review. 22 (4): 453–460. doi:10.1080/09595230310001613976. ISSN 0959-5236.
- Kowal, Mikael A.; Hazekamp, Arno; Colzato, Lorenza S.; van Steenbergen, Henk; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Durieux, Jeffrey; Manai, Meriem; Hommel, Bernhard (2014). "Cannabis and creativity: highly potent cannabis impairs divergent thinking in regular cannabis users". Psychopharmacology. 232 (6): 1123–1134. doi:10.1007/s00213-014-3749-1. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Journey through the K-hole: Phenomenological aspects of ketamine use | https://www.drugandalcoholdependence.com/article/S0376-8716(08)00055-0/abstract
- Pavel, S.; Goldstein, R.; Petrescu, Magdalena (1980). "Vasotocin, melatonin and narcolepsy: Possible involvement of the pineal gland in its patho-physiological mechanism". Peptides. 1 (4): 281–284. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(80)90003-0. ISSN 0196-9781.
- Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Gersh, Tamara; Silvestri, Rosalia; Stickgold, Robert; Salzman, Carl; Hobson, J. Allan (2001). "SSRI Treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects". Journal of Sleep Research. 10 (2): 129–142. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2869.2001.00249.x. ISSN 0962-1105.
- Oneirogens | http://oneironauticum.com/oneirogens/
- Nour, Matthew M.; Evans, Lisa; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin L. (2016). "Ego-Dissolution and Psychedelics: Validation of the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI)". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 10. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2016.00269. ISSN 1662-5161.
- "Personality Disorders". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 669–672. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm18.
- Spotts, James V.; Shontz, Franklin C. (2009). "Drug-Induced Ego States. I. Cocaine: Phenomenology and Implications". International Journal of the Addictions. 19 (2): 119–151. doi:10.3109/10826088409057173. ISSN 0020-773X.
- Woodham, Robert L. (1988). "A Self-Psychological Consideration in Cocaine Addiction". Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 4 (3): 41–46. doi:10.1300/J020V04N03_04. ISSN 0734-7324.
- Kuypers, K.P.C.; Steenbergen, L.; Theunissen, E.L.; Toennes, S.W.; Ramaekers, J.G. (2015). "Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 25 (11): 1914–1921. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.08.012. ISSN 0924-977X.
- Gasser, Peter; Kirchner, Katharina; Passie, Torsten (2014). "LSD-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with a life-threatening disease: A qualitative study of acute and sustained subjective effects". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 29 (1): 57–68. doi:10.1177/0269881114555249. ISSN 0269-8811.
- Kaelen, M.; Barrett, F. S.; Roseman, L.; Lorenz, R.; Family, N.; Bolstridge, M.; Curran, H. V.; Feilding, A.; Nutt, D. J.; Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2015). "LSD enhances the emotional response to music". Psychopharmacology. 232 (19): 3607–3614. doi:10.1007/s00213-015-4014-y. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Hartogsohn, Ido (2018). "The Meaning-Enhancing Properties of Psychedelics and Their Mediator Role in Psychedelic Therapy, Spirituality, and Creativity". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 12. doi:10.3389/fnins.2018.00129. ISSN 1662-453X.
- Swanson, Link R. (2018). "Unifying Theories of Psychedelic Drug Effects". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 9. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00172. ISSN 1663-9812.
- Miller, Melissa A.; Bershad, Anya K.; de Wit, Harriet (2015). "Drug effects on responses to emotional facial expressions". Behavioural Pharmacology. 26 (6): 571–579. doi:10.1097/FBP.0000000000000164. ISSN 0955-8810.
- Belser, Alexander B.; Agin-Liebes, Gabrielle; Swift, T. Cody; Terrana, Sara; Devenot, Neşe; Friedman, Harris L.; Guss, Jeffrey; Bossis, Anthony; Ross, Stephen (2017). "Patient Experiences of Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis". Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 57 (4): 354–388. doi:10.1177/0022167817706884. ISSN 0022-1678.
- Kamboj, Sunjeev K.; Joye, Alyssa; Bisby, James A.; Das, Ravi K.; Platt, Bradley; Curran, H. Valerie (2012). "Processing of facial affect in social drinkers: a dose–response study of alcohol using dynamic emotion expressions". Psychopharmacology. 227 (1): 31–39. doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2940-5. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Philippot, Pierre; Kornreich, Charles; Blairy, Sylvie; Baert, Iseult; Dulk, Anne Den; Bon, Olivier Le; Streel, Emmanuel; Hess, Ursula; Pelc, Isy; Verbanck, Paul (1999). "Alcoholics'Deficits in the Decoding of Emotional Facial Expression". Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 23 (6): 1031–1038. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1999.tb04221.x. ISSN 0145-6008.
- Wardle, Margaret C.; Garner, Matthew J.; Munafò, Marcus R.; de Wit, Harriet (2012). "Amphetamine as a social drug: effects of d-amphetamine on social processing and behavior". Psychopharmacology. 223 (2): 199–210. doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2708-y. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Nichols, David E. (1986). "Differences Between the Mechanism of Action of MDMA, MBDB, and the Classic Hallucinogens. Identification of a New Therapeutic Class: Entactogens". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 18 (4): 305–313. doi:10.1080/02791072.1986.10472362. ISSN 0279-1072.
- The Great Entactogen - Empathogen Debate (from the Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, MAPS - Volume 4 Number 2 Summer 1993 - pp 47-49) | https://www.maps.org/news-letters/v04n2/04247eed.html
- Bedi, Gillinder; Hyman, David; de Wit, Harriet (2010). "Is Ecstasy an "Empathogen"? Effects of ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Prosocial Feelings and Identification of Emotional States in Others". Biological Psychiatry. 68 (12): 1134–1140. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.08.003. ISSN 0006-3223.
- Scahill, Lawrence; Anderson, George M. (2010). "Is Ecstasy an Empathogen?". Biological Psychiatry. 68 (12): 1082–1083. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.10.020. ISSN 0006-3223.
- MDMA effects (Erowid) | https://erowid.org/chemicals/mdma/mdma_effects.shtml
- 4-FA (The Drug Classroom) | https://thedrugclassroom.com/video/4-fluoroamphetamine-4-fa/
- 4-Fluoroamphetamine(4-FA) – Critical Review Report | http://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.4_4-FA_CRev.pdf?ua=1
- 2C-B effects (Erowid) | https://erowid.org/chemicals/2cb/2cb_effects.shtml
- González, Débora; Torrens, Marta; Farré, Magí (2015). "Acute Effects of the Novel Psychoactive Drug 2C-B on Emotions". BioMed Research International. 2015: 1–9. doi:10.1155/2015/643878. ISSN 2314-6133.
- Ford, Jason A.; Schroeder, Ryan D. (2008). "Academic Strain and Non-Medical Use of Prescription Stimulants among College Students". Deviant Behavior. 30 (1): 26–53. doi:10.1080/01639620802049900. ISSN 0163-9625.
- Riccio, Cynthia A.; Waldrop, Jennifer J.M.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Lowe, Patricia (2001). "Effects of Stimulants on the Continuous Performance Test (CPT)". The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 13 (3): 326–335. doi:10.1176/jnp.13.3.326. ISSN 0895-0172.
- Seiden, L S; Sabol, K E; Ricaurte, G A (1993). "Amphetamine: Effects on Catecholamine Systems and Behavior". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 33 (1): 639–676. doi:10.1146/annurev.pa.33.040193.003231. ISSN 0362-1642.
- Sprague, R.; Sleator, E. (1977). "Methylphenidate in hyperkinetic children: differences in dose effects on learning and social behavior". Science. 198 (4323): 1274–1276. doi:10.1126/science.337493. ISSN 0036-8075.
- Randall, Delia C.; Viswanath, Aparna; Bharania, Punam; Elsabagh, Sarah M.; Hartley, David E.; Shneerson, John M.; File, Sandra E. (2005). "Does Modafinil Enhance Cognitive Performance in Young Volunteers Who Are Not Sleep-Deprived?". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 25 (2): 175–179. doi:10.1097/01.jcp.0000155816.21467.25. ISSN 0271-0749.
- Bernstein, Gail A.; Carroll, Marilyn E.; Crosby, Ross D.; Perwien, Amy R.; Go, Frances S.; Benowitz, Neal L. (1994). "Caffeine Effects on Learning, Performance, and Anxiety in Normal School-Age Children". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 33 (3): 407–415. doi:10.1097/00004583-199403000-00016. ISSN 0890-8567.
- Caffeine effects (Erowid) | https://erowid.org/chemicals/caffeine/caffeine_effects.shtml
- Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E.; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Leamon, Martin H.; Galloway, Gantt P.; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D.; Buonocore, Michael H. (2007). "Attentional Control and Brain Metabolite Levels in Methamphetamine Abusers". Biological Psychiatry. 61 (11): 1272–1280. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.07.031. ISSN 0006-3223.
- Waller, Niels; Putnam, Frank W.; Carlson, Eve B. (1996). "Types of dissociation and dissociative types: A taxometric analysis of dissociative experiences". Psychological Methods. 1 (3): 300–321. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.1.3.300. ISSN 1082-989X.
- Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald; Geraerts, Elke (2007). "The Dissociative Experiences Taxon Is Related to Fantasy Proneness". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 195 (9): 769–772. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e318142ce55. ISSN 0022-3018.
- Levin, Ross; Spei, Ekaterina (2016). "Relationship of Purported Measures of Pathological and Nonpathological Dissociation to Self-Reported Psychological Distress and Fantasy Immersion". Assessment. 11 (2): 160–168. doi:10.1177/1073191103256377. ISSN 1073-1911.
- Lynn, Christopher Dana (2005). "Adaptive and Maladaptive Dissociation: An Epidemiological and Anthropological Comparison and Proposition for an Expanded Dissociation Model". Anthropology of Consciousness. 16 (2): 16–49. doi:10.1525/ac.2005.16.2.16. ISSN 1053-4202.
- Kaelen, Mendel; Roseman, Leor; Kahan, Joshua; Santos-Ribeiro, Andre; Orban, Csaba; Lorenz, Romy; Barrett, Frederick S.; Bolstridge, Mark; Williams, Tim; Williams, Luke; Wall, Matthew B.; Feilding, Amanda; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Nutt, David J.; Carhart-Harris, Robin (2016). "LSD modulates music-induced imagery via changes in parahippocampal connectivity". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 26 (7): 1099–1109. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2016.03.018. ISSN 0924-977X.
- Fachner, J. (2002). The space between the notes-Research on cannabis and music perception. Looking Back, Looking Ahead-Popular Music Studies, 20, 308-319. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.467.6346&rep=rep1&type=pdf
- Nichols, D. E. (2016). "Psychedelics". Pharmacological Reviews. 68 (2): 264–355. doi:10.1124/pr.115.011478. ISSN 1521-0081.
- Kaelen, Mendel; Giribaldi, Bruna; Raine, Jordan; Evans, Lisa; Timmerman, Christopher; Rodriguez, Natalie; Roseman, Leor; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin (2018). "The hidden therapist: evidence for a central role of music in psychedelic therapy". Psychopharmacology. 235 (2): 505–519. doi:10.1007/s00213-017-4820-5. ISSN 0033-3158.
- McGlothlin, William (1967). "Long Lasting Effects of LSD on Normals". Archives of General Psychiatry. 17 (5): 521. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1967.01730290009002. ISSN 0003-990X.
- Lim, D. K. (2003). Ketamine associated psychedelic effects and dependence. Singapore Med J, 44(1), 31-34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12762561
- Siegel, Ronald K.; Hirschman, Ada E. (1985). "Hashish and Laughter: Historical Notes and Translations of Early French Investigations". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 17 (2): 87–91. doi:10.1080/02791072.1985.10472327. ISSN 0279-1072.
- Bøhling, Frederik (2017). "Psychedelic pleasures: An affective understanding of the joys of tripping". International Journal of Drug Policy. 49: 133–143. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.017. ISSN 0955-3959.
- Xu, Xiaomeng; Ma, Shifan; Feng, Zhiwei; Hu, Guanxing; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun (2016). "Chemogenomics knowledgebase and systems pharmacology for hallucinogen target identification—Salvinorin A as a case study". Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling. 70: 284–295. doi:10.1016/j.jmgm.2016.08.001. ISSN 1093-3263.
- Kremer, Christian; Paulke, Alexander; Wunder, Cora; Toennes, Stefan W. (2012). "Variable adverse effects in subjects after ingestion of equal doses of Argyreia nervosa seeds". Forensic Science International. 214 (1-3): e6–e8. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.06.025. ISSN 0379-0738.
- Shulgin, A., & Shulgin, A. (1995). PIHKAL: a chemical love story. Berkeley, CA: Transform Press. https://erowid.org/library/books_online/pihkal/pihkal096.shtml
- Morgan, Celia JA; Noronha, Louise A; Muetzelfeldt, Mark; Feilding, Amanda; Curran, H Valerie (2013). "Harms and benefits associated with psychoactive drugs: findings of an international survey of active drug users". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 27 (6): 497–506. doi:10.1177/0269881113477744. ISSN 0269-8811.
- Mobbs, Dean; Greicius, Michael D; Abdel-Azim, Eiman; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L (2003). "Humor Modulates the Mesolimbic Reward Centers". Neuron. 40 (5): 1041–1048. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00751-7. ISSN 0896-6273.
- "Glossary of Technical Terms". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 824–5. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms.
- Snaith, R. P.; Constantopoulos, A. A.; Jardine, M. Y.; McGuffin, P. (1978). "A clinical scale for the self-assessment of irritability". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 132 (2): 164–171. doi:10.1192/bjp.132.2.164. ISSN 0007-1250.
- Cocaine effects (Erowid) | https://erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/cocaine_effects.shtml
- Sommers, Ira; Baskin, Deborah; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle (2006). "Methamphetamine use among young adults: Health and social consequences". Addictive Behaviors. 31 (8): 1469–1476. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.10.004. ISSN 0306-4603.
- Ahmann, P. A., Waltonen, S. J., Theye, F. W., Olson, K. A., & Van Erem, A. J. (1993). Placebo-controlled evaluation of Ritalin side effects. Pediatrics, 91(6), 1101-1106. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8502509
- Norström, Thor; Pape, Hilde (2010). "Alcohol, suppressed anger and violence". Addiction. 105 (9): 1580–1586. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.02997.x. ISSN 0965-2140.
- Mondadori, Cesare; Möbius, Hans-Jörg; Borkowski, Jürgen (1996). "The GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 36 742 and the nootropic oxiracetam facilitate the formation of long-term memory". Behavioural Brain Research. 77 (1-2): 223–225. doi:10.1016/0166-4328(95)00222-7. ISSN 0166-4328.
- Ilieva, Irena P.; Hook, Cayce J.; Farah, Martha J. (2015). "Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 27 (6): 1069–1089. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00776. ISSN 0898-929X.
- Borota, Daniel; Murray, Elizabeth; Keceli, Gizem; Chang, Allen; Watabe, Joseph M; Ly, Maria; Toscano, John P; Yassa, Michael A (2014). "Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans". Nature Neuroscience. 17 (2): 201–203. doi:10.1038/nn.3623. ISSN 1097-6256.
- Morgan, Annette; Stevens, John (2010). "Does Bacopa monnieri Improve Memory Performance in Older Persons? Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial". The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 16 (7): 753–759. doi:10.1089/acm.2009.0342. ISSN 1075-5535.
- Mehta, Mitul A.; Owen, Adrian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Mavaddat, Nahal; Pickard, John D.; Robbins, Trevor W. (2000). "Methylphenidate Enhances Working Memory by Modulating Discrete Frontal and Parietal Lobe Regions in the Human Brain". The Journal of Neuroscience. 20 (6): RC65–RC65. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-06-j0004.2000. ISSN 0270-6474.
- Ostrovskaia, R. U., Gudasheva, T. A., Voronina, T. A., & Seredenin, S. B. (2002). The original novel nootropic and neuroprotective agent Noopept. Eksperimental'naia i klinicheskaia farmakologiia, 65(5), 66-72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12596521
- Heishman, Stephen J.; Kleykamp, Bethea A.; Singleton, Edward G. (2010). "Meta-analysis of the acute effects of nicotine and smoking on human performance". Psychopharmacology. 210 (4): 453–469. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1848-1. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Müller, Ulrich; Steffenhagen, Nikolai; Regenthal, Ralf; Bublak, Peter (2004). "Effects of modafinil on working memory processes in humans". Psychopharmacology. 177 (1-2): 161–169. doi:10.1007/s00213-004-1926-3. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Cowan, Nelson (2008). "Chapter 20 What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?". 169: 323–338. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9. ISSN 0079-6123.
- Engle, Randall W.; Tuholski, Stephen W.; Laughlin, James E.; Conway, Andrew R. A. (1999). "Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: A latent-variable approach". Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 128 (3): 309–331. doi:10.1037/0096-3422.214.171.1249. ISSN 1939-2222.
- Daneman, Meredyth; Merikle, Philip M. (1996). "Working memory and language comprehension: A meta-analysis". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 3 (4): 422–433. doi:10.3758/BF03214546. ISSN 1069-9384.
- Daneman, Meredyth; Carpenter, Patricia A. (1980). "Individual differences in working memory and reading". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 19 (4): 450–466. doi:10.1016/S0022-5371(80)90312-6. ISSN 0022-5371.
- Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Christal, Raymond E. (1990). "Reasoning ability is (little more than) working-memory capacity?!". Intelligence. 14 (4): 389–433. doi:10.1016/S0160-2896(05)80012-1. ISSN 0160-2896.
- Kjærsgaard, Torben (2015). "Enhancing Motivation by Use of Prescription Stimulants: The Ethics of Motivation Enhancement". AJOB Neuroscience. 6 (1): 4–10. doi:10.1080/21507740.2014.990543. ISSN 2150-7740.
- Ilieva, Irena P.; Farah, Martha J. (2013). "Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 7. doi:10.3389/fnins.2013.00198. ISSN 1662-453X.
- Nyholm, Sven (2015). "Motivation-Enhancements and Domain-Specific Values". AJOB Neuroscience. 6 (1): 37–39. doi:10.1080/21507740.2014.995313. ISSN 2150-7740.
- Terbeck, Sylvia (2013). "Why Students Bother Taking Adderall: Measurement Validity of Self-Reports". AJOB Neuroscience. 4 (1): 21–22. doi:10.1080/21507740.2012.762064. ISSN 2150-7740.
- Sagara, H.; Kitamura, Y.; Esumi, S.; Sendo, T.; Araki, H.; Gotima, Y. (2008). "Motivational effects of nicotine as measured by the runway method using priming stimulation of intracranial self-stimulation behavior". Acta Med Okayama. 62 (4): 227–233. doi:10.18926/amo/30940. ISSN 0386-300X.
- Young, Jared W.; Geyer, Mark A. (2010). "Action of Modafinil—Increased Motivation Via the Dopamine Transporter Inhibition and D1 Receptors?". Biological Psychiatry. 67 (8): 784–787. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.12.015. ISSN 0006-3223.
- Ting-A-Kee, R.; van der Kooy, D. (2012). "The Neurobiology of Opiate Motivation". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 2 (10): a012096–a012096. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a012096. ISSN 2157-1422.
- Riters, Lauren V. (2010). "Evidence for opioid involvement in the motivation to sing". Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy. 39 (2): 141–150. doi:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2009.03.008. ISSN 0891-0618.
- Hunt, Harry T. (1976). "A Test of the Psychedelic Model of Altered States of Consciousness". Archives of General Psychiatry. 33 (7): 867. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1976.01770070097012. ISSN 0003-990X.
- Bonner, Edward T.; Friedman, Harris L. (2011). "A conceptual clarification of the experience of awe: An interpretative phenomenological analysis". The Humanistic Psychologist. 39 (3): 222–235. doi:10.1080/08873267.2011.593372. ISSN 1547-3333.
- Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W; Richards, William A; Richards, Brian D; Jesse, Robert; MacLean, Katherine A; Barrett, Frederick S; Cosimano, Mary P; Klinedinst, Maggie A (2017). "Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 32 (1): 49–69. doi:10.1177/0269881117731279. ISSN 0269-8811.
- Das, Saibal; Barnwal, Preeti; Ramasamy, Anand; Sen, Sumalya; Mondal, Somnath (2016). "Lysergic acid diethylamide: a drug of 'use'?". Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. 6 (3): 214–228. doi:10.1177/2045125316640440. ISSN 2045-1253.
- Bowers, Malcolm B. (1966). ""Psychedelic" Experiences in Acute Psychoses". Archives of General Psychiatry. 15 (3): 240. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1966.01730150016003. ISSN 0003-990X.
- Corlett, Philip R.; Honey, Garry D.; Aitken, Michael R. F.; Dickinson, Anthony; Shanks, David R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Lee, Michael; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Murray, Graham K.; McKenna, Peter J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Fletcher, Paul C. (2006). "Frontal Responses During Learning Predict Vulnerability to the Psychotogenic Effects of Ketamine". Archives of General Psychiatry. 63 (6): 611. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.6.611. ISSN 0003-990X.
- Preller, Katrin H.; Herdener, Marcus; Pokorny, Thomas; Planzer, Amanda; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Liechti, Matthias E.; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X. (2017). "The Fabric of Meaning and Subjective Effects in LSD-Induced States Depend on Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation". Current Biology. 27 (3): 451–457. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.12.030. ISSN 0960-9822.
- Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E.; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T.; Williams, Tim M.; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I.; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J.; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D.; Wise, Richard G.; Curran, H. Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J. (2016). "Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (17): 4853–4858. doi:10.1073/pnas.1518377113. ISSN 0027-8424.
- Kapur, Shitij (2003). "Psychosis as a State of Aberrant Salience: A Framework Linking Biology, Phenomenology, and Pharmacology in Schizophrenia". American Journal of Psychiatry. 160 (1): 13–23. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.1.13. ISSN 0002-953X.
- Murray, Robin M.; Morrison, Paul D.; Henquet, Cécile; Forti, Marta Di (2007). "Cannabis, the mind and society: the hash realities". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 8 (11): 885–895. doi:10.1038/nrn2253. ISSN 1471-003X.
- Chaudhury, Suprakash; Kiran, Chandra (2009). "Understanding delusions". Industrial Psychiatry Journal. 18 (1): 3. doi:10.4103/0972-6748.57851. ISSN 0972-6748.
- "Glossary of Technical Terms". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.): 819. 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms.
- Sjoberg, B. M.; Hollister, L. E. (1965). "The effects of psychotomimetic drugs on primary suggestibility". Psychopharmacologia. 8 (4): 251–262. doi:10.1007/BF00407857. ISSN 0033-3158.
- What is suggestibility? (Psychology Dictionary) | https://psychologydictionary.org/suggestibility/
- Carhart-Harris, R. L.; Kaelen, M.; Whalley, M. G.; Bolstridge, M.; Feilding, A.; Nutt, D. J. (2014). "LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers". Psychopharmacology. 232 (4): 785–794. doi:10.1007/s00213-014-3714-z. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Kelly, Sean F.; Fisher, Seymour; Kelly, Reid J. (1978). "Effects of cannabis intoxication on primary suggestibility". Psychopharmacology. 56 (2): 217–219. doi:10.1007/BF00431853. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Cheong, Soon Ho; Lee, Kun Moo; Lim, Se Hun; Cho, Kwang Rae; Kim, Myoung Hun; Ko, Myoung Jin; Shim, Joo Cheol; Oh, Min Kyung; Kim, Yong Han; Lee, Sang Eun (2011). "The Effect of Suggestion on Unpleasant Dreams Induced by Ketamine Administration". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 112 (5): 1082–1085. doi:10.1213/ANE.0b013e31820eeb0e. ISSN 0003-2999.
- Whalley, M. G.; Brooks, G. B. (2008). "Enhancement of suggestibility and imaginative ability with nitrous oxide". Psychopharmacology. 203 (4): 745–752. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1424-0. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Piguet, Camille; Dayer, Alexandre; Kosel, Markus; Desseilles, Martin; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Bertschy, Gilles (2010). "Phenomenology of racing and crowded thoughts in mood disorders: A theoretical reappraisal". Journal of Affective Disorders. 121 (3): 189–198. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.05.006. ISSN 0165-0327.
- Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana; Wegner, Daniel M. (2008). "Psychological effects of thought acceleration". Emotion. 8 (5): 597–612. doi:10.1037/a0013268. ISSN 1931-1516.
- Yang, Kaite; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara G.; Pronin, Emily (2014). "Thought Acceleration Boosts Positive Mood Among Individuals with Minimal to Moderate Depressive Symptoms". Cognitive Therapy and Research. 38 (3): 261–269. doi:10.1007/s10608-014-9597-9. ISSN 0147-5916.
- Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana (2008). "Thought Speed, Mood, and the Experience of Mental Motion". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 3 (6): 461–485. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00091.x. ISSN 1745-6916.
- Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Leech, Robert; Hellyer, Peter J.; Shanahan, Murray; Feilding, Amanda; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Chialvo, Dante R.; Nutt, David (2014). "The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 8. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00020. ISSN 1662-5161.
- Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Carhart-Harris, Robin; Leech, Robert; Nutt, David; Chialvo, Dante R. (2014). "Enhanced repertoire of brain dynamical states during the psychedelic experience". Human Brain Mapping. 35 (11): 5442–5456. doi:10.1002/hbm.22562. ISSN 1065-9471.
- Hu, Dewen; Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Andrade, Katia C.; Tofoli, Luis F.; Santos, Antonio C.; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; de Araujo, Draulio B. (2015). "The Psychedelic State Induced by Ayahuasca Modulates the Activity and Connectivity of the Default Mode Network". PLOS ONE. 10 (2): e0118143. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118143. ISSN 1932-6203.
- Diamond, Adele (2013). "Executive Functions". Annual Review of Psychology. 64 (1): 135–168. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750. ISSN 0066-4308.
- Biederman, Joseph; Seidman, Larry J.; Petty, Carter R.; Fried, Ronna; Doyle, Alysa E.; Cohen, Daniel R.; Kenealy, Deborah C.; Faraone, Stephen V. (2008). "Effects of Stimulant Medication on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 69 (7): 1150–1156. doi:10.4088/JCP.v69n0715. ISSN 0160-6689.
- Gupta, B.S. (1977). "Dextroamphetamine and measures of intelligence". Intelligence. 1 (3): 274–280. doi:10.1016/0160-2896(77)90010-1. ISSN 0160-2896.
- Hellwig-Brida, Susanne; Daseking, Monika; Keller, Ferdinand; Petermann, Franz; Goldbeck, Lutz (2011). "Effects of Methylphenidate on Intelligence and Attention Components in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 21 (3): 245–253. doi:10.1089/cap.2010.0041. ISSN 1044-5463.
- Arnsten, Amy F.T.; Li, Bao-Ming (2005). "Neurobiology of Executive Functions: Catecholamine Influences on Prefrontal Cortical Functions". Biological Psychiatry. 57 (11): 1377–1384. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.08.019. ISSN 0006-3223.
- Lundqvist, T (2005). "Cognitive consequences of cannabis use: Comparison with abuse of stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 81 (2): 319–330. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2005.02.017. ISSN 0091-3057.
- Porkka-Heiskanen, T. (1997). "Adenosine: A Mediator of the Sleep-Inducing Effects of Prolonged Wakefulness". Science. 276 (5316): 1265–1268. doi:10.1126/science.276.5316.1265. ISSN 0036-8075.
- Repantis, Dimitris; Schlattmann, Peter; Laisney, Oona; Heuser, Isabella (2010). "Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: A systematic review". Pharmacological Research. 62 (3): 187–206. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2010.04.002. ISSN 1043-6618.
- Engber, T.M; Dennis, S.A; Jones, B.E; Miller, M.S; Contreras, P.C (1998). "Brain regional substrates for the actions of the novel wake-promoting agent modafinil in the rat: comparison with amphetamine". Neuroscience. 87 (4): 905–911. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(98)00015-3. ISSN 0306-4522.
- Caldwell, John A.; Caldwell, J. Lyn; Smyth, Nicholas K.; Hall, Kecia K. (2000). "A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the efficacy of modafinil for sustaining the alertness and performance of aviators: a helicopter simulator study". Psychopharmacology. 150 (3): 272–282. doi:10.1007/s002130000450. ISSN 0033-3158.
- Myrick, Hugh; Malcolm, Robert; Taylor, Brent; LaROWE, STEVEN (2004). "Modafinil: Preclinical, Clinical, and Post-Marketing Surveillance—A Review of Abuse Liability Issues". Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. 16 (2): 101–109. doi:10.1080/10401230490453743. ISSN 1040-1237.
- Scammell, Thomas E.; Estabrooke, Ivy V.; McCarthy, Marie T.; Chemelli, Richard M.; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Miller, Matthew S.; Saper, Clifford B. (2000). "Hypothalamic Arousal Regions Are Activated during Modafinil-Induced Wakefulness". The Journal of Neuroscience. 20 (22): 8620–8628. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-22-08620.2000. ISSN 0270-6474.