Naturally occurring sources - PsychonautWiki
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Artwork from the cover of Hallucinogenic Plants (A Golden Guide)

Naturally occurring sources refers to psychoactive chemicals or their precursors that already exist in nature. This is in contrast to synthetic psychoactive compounds which are artificially produced or designed in laboratories. These natural chemicals can often be reproduced synthetically as well, though notably they appear in nature or through human cultivation.

Proposed origins

There are a variety of proposed reasons for the appearance of psychoactive substances in organisms including the following examples:

Selective breeding

Selective breeding is a method used by cultivators to add or remove traits from successive generations of organisms by breeding together those that have the preferred properties in hopes of developing a desirable genetic strain. This may have resulted in both the potency and appearance of psychoactive substance(s) which the cultivators wished to produce.[1]

Defence mechanism

Another proposed reason for the presence of psychoactive substances in nature is their use as a defence mechanism. Through natural selection an organism may develop a poison or toxin useful for fending off predators,[2] as can be seen in Latrodectus Spiders who's psychoactive Latrotoxin has no reward value, and instead poses a threat to others.

Reward symbiosis

It is also possible that co-evolution encouraged psychoactive organisms to appear as a means of propagation. That is; in the same way sweet fruits were naturally selected by animals spreading their contained seeds, so were psychoactive flora that posed some benefit to the animals.[3]

Genetic similarity

An incidental cause of the prevalence of these substances is the shared genetic origins of the organisms. Given that they share a great deal of genetic code it is reasonable to assume that this may have been a factor in producing chemicals similar enough to neurotransmitters so as to activate receptor sites. For example many psychoactive chemicals are biosynthesized from amino acids such as tryptophan, while in humans this amino acid is used to make serotonin. The result is that some of the tryptamines in nature are serotonergic agonists when consumed.

Historical significance

The use of psychoactive substances is deeply rooted in human culture and dates back to pre-history. Early societies often incorporated these organisms into their traditions in medicine, spirituality, or recreation, such as the use of soma in the origins of Hinduism, and many of these uses continue into the modern day. Some common examples of this are the use of wine containing Ethanol in Christian communion, and Ayahuasca among indigenous peoples of the Amazon.

Many of these organisms have been instrumental to the progress of various scientific fields, such as Biology, Medicine, Psychonautics, and continue to reveal their importance with their involvement in major discoveries, such as the discovery of cannabinoid receptors[4] preceding our knowledge of endocannabinoids.[5]

Precluding endogenous chemicals, many of these organisms served as humanities only means of altering neurochemistry until the advent of synthetic psychoactives during the modern age. They have been at the forefront of major historical developments, such as pharmacotherapy, the funding of organized crime, the psychedelic era of the 60's, and the current "War on Drugs".

Examples

Below is an index of articles regarding natural sources of psychoactive substances. Other than inanimate sources they are categorized by kingdom of organism with sections for each applicable class of psychoactivity, sub-sections are given to active constituents, and finally the taxonomy and common name. Names may appear more than once if they contain a variety of substances, or their active substance has a variety of effects. Please note the quantity of substance obtained through an organism is not always safe and/or effective at common levels of consumption, but they are here included for sake of completeness. In addition some of the organisms are toxic or dangerous and thus proper research and preparation is recommended before attempting to personally investigate their activity.

Botanical sources
 

Farming techniques
 

Datasheets
 

Botanical sources (Unknown)
 

Mycological sources
 

Farming techniques
 

Datasheets
 

Zoological sources
 

These animals produce venom used for self-defense against predators. Invertebrates like insects deliver stings, or bites, whilst vertebrates like frogs and toads are "milked" for secretion that are either smoked (eg. Colorado River Toad) or burned into the skin (eg. kambo).

Farming techniques
 

Datasheets
 

Inanimate sources
 

Datasheets
 

External links

References

  1. ARTIFICIAL SELECTION: A POWERFUL TOOL FOR ECOLOGISTS | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084%5B1650:ASAPTF%5D2.0.CO;2/abstract
  2. Nicotine's Defensive Function in Nature | http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.0020217
  3. Evolution And Addiction | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00086.x/abstract
  4. Determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor in rat brain | http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/34/5/605.long
  5. The Discovery of the Endocannabinoid System | http://www.beyondthc.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/eCBSystemLee.pdf
  6. Studies on the alkaloid composition of the Hawaiian Baby Woodrose Argyreia nervosa, a common legal high | http://www.fsijournal.org/article/S0379-0738(15)00074-2/abstract
  7. Chao JM, Der Marderosian AH (1973). "Ergoline alkaloidal constituents of Hawaiian baby wood rose, Argyreia nervosa (Burmf) Bojer". J. Pharm. Sci. 62 (4): 588–91. doi:10.1002/jps.2600620409. 
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  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Alkaloid content in relation to ethnobotanical use of Trichocereus pachanoi and related taxa | http://gradworks.umi.com/14/78/1478388.html
  17. Cactus alkaloids. XXXVI. Mescaline and related compounds from Trichocereus peruvianus. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/600028
  18. Cactus Alkaloids. I. Trichocereus terscheckii (Parmentier) Britton and Rose | http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja01148a097
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  20. Lophophora diffusa (Croizat) Bravo | http://sacredcacti.com/blog/diffusa/
  21. [Estimation of mescaline and pellotine in Lophophora coulter plants (Cactaceae) by means of the oscillographic polarography]. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/647075
  22. Lophophora | https://www.erowid.org/plants/cacti/cacti_guide/cacti_guide_lophopho.shtml
  23. Lophophora diffusa (Croizat) Bravo | http://sacredcacti.com/blog/diffusa/
  24. Lophophora | https://www.erowid.org/plants/cacti/cacti_guide/cacti_guide_lophopho.shtml
  25. [Estimation of mescaline and pellotine in Lophophora coulter plants (Cactaceae) by means of the oscillographic polarography]. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/647075
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  27. [Estimation of mescaline and pellotine in Lophophora coulter plants (Cactaceae) by means of the oscillographic polarography]. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/647075
  28. Lophophora | https://www.erowid.org/plants/cacti/cacti_guide/cacti_guide_lophopho.shtml
  29. Reported analysis of Lophophora williamsii | http://sacredcacti.com/blog/lophophora-williamsii-analysis/
  30. Arundo donax mentioned in "DMT is Everywhere" | https://www.erowid.org/plants/arundo_donax/arundo_donax_info2.shtml
  31. Phalaris FAQ | https://www.erowid.org/plants/phalaris/phalaris_faq.shtml
  32. Bufotenin | https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Bufotenin#Phalaris_spp.
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  36. Tryptamine Carriers FAQ | http://deoxy.org/trypfaq.htm#phalaris
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  41. Pharmahuasca, Anahuasca and Vinho da Jurema: Human Pharmacology of Oral DMT Plus Harmine | http://web.archive.org/web/20120124034100/http://www.santodaime.it/Library/NATURALSCIENCES/ott98a_english.htm
  42. Tryptamine Carriers FAQ | http://deoxy.org/trypfaq.htm#phalaris
  43. Phalaris FAQ | https://www.erowid.org/plants/phalaris/phalaris_faq.shtml
  44. Pharmacotheon page 246 | https://books.google.ca/books?id=VMjwAAAAMAAJ&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=phragmites+australis
  45. Psychotria viridis DMT Contents and Dosages | https://www.erowid.org/plants/psychotria/psychotria_info1.shtml
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  48. Acacia acuminata Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_acuminata
  49. Acacia acuminata dmt-nexus wiki | https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Acacia_acuminata
  50. Acacia baileyana Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_baileyana
  51. Acacia baileyana dmt-nexus wiki | https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Acacia_baileyana
  52. Acacia burkittii wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_burkittii
  53. Acacia burkitii dmt-nexus wiki | https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Acacia_burkittii
  54. Acacia confusa Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_confusa
  55. Acacia confusa dmt-nexus wiki | https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Acacia_confusa
  56. Acacia courtii DMT-Nexus| https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Acacia_courtii
  57. Acacia courtii dmt-nexus wiki | https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Acacia_courtii
  58. Acacia concurrens Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_concurrens
  59. Acacia floribunda Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_floribunda
  60. Acacia floribunda dmt-nexus wiki | https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Acacia_floribunda
  61. Acacia jibberdingensis wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_jibberdingensis
  62. Acacia longifolia Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_longifolia
  63. Acacia longifolia dmt-nexus wiki | https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Acacia_longifolia
  64. Acacia maidenii Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_maidenii
  65. Acacia maidenii dmt-nexus wiki | https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Acacia_maidenii
  66. Acacia neurophylla wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_neurophylla
  67. Acacia obtusifolia Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_obtusifolia
  68. Acacia obtusifolia dmt-nexus wiki | https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Acacia_obtusifolia
  69. Acacia phlebophylla Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_phlebophylla
  70. Acacia phlebophylla dmt-nexus wiki | https://wiki.dmt-nexus.me/Acacia_phlebophylla
  71. Acacia prominens Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_prominens
  72. Acacia simplex Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_simplex
  73. Banisteriopsis muricata |
  74. Banisteriopsis caapi |
  75. Alicia anisopetala |
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  92. IBOGAINE: A REVIEW | http://www.iceers.org/docs/science/iboga/Ibogaine%20Proceedings/ch01_Review_Alper.pdf
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  96. Salvia Recognita drug profile| https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28722248/
  97. Salvia Glutinosa drug profile| https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28722248/
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  103. IBOGAINE: A REVIEW | http://www.iceers.org/docs/science/iboga/Ibogaine%20Proceedings/ch01_Review_Alper.pdf
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  106. IBOGAINE: A REVIEW | http://www.iceers.org/docs/science/iboga/Ibogaine%20Proceedings/ch01_Review_Alper.pdf
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  109. |Duboisia leichhardtii Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duboisia
  110. |Duboisia myoporoides Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duboisia_myoporoides
  111. Erythroxylum ecarinatum wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erythroxylum_ecarinatum
  112. Erythroxylum ecarinatum Web Archive | https://web.archive.org/web/20070926234938/http://users.cyberone.com.au/bwalters/rareplants/erythroxylum_ecarinatum.htm
  113. Erythroxylum vaccinifolium wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erythroxylum_vaccinifolium
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  115. Opioid activity of alkaloids extracted from Picralima nitida (fam. Apocynaceae). (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9683021
  116. Nepetalactone: a new opioid analgesic from Nepeta caesarea Boiss. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9720633
  117. Structure and stereochemistry 4a.beta.,7.alpha.,7a.beta.-nepetalactone from Nepeta mussini and its relationship to the 4a.alpha.,7.alpha.,7a.alpha.- and 4a.alpha.,7.alpha.,7a.beta.-nepetalactones from N. cataria | http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo01307a016
  118. Quality components and antidepressant-like effects of GABA green tea. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28836632
  119. Effect of GABA-Fortified Oolong Tea on Reducing Stress in a University Student Cohort. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30972340
  120. Identification of the putative binding pocket of valerenic acid on GABAA receptors using docking studies and site-directed mutagenesis. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26375408
  121. Erythroxylum coca Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erythroxylum_coca
  122. Erythroxylum novogranatense Wikipedia | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erythroxylum_novogranatense
  123. Human monoamine oxidase enzyme inhibition by coffee and β-carbolines norharman and harman isolated from coffee | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320505007514
  124. Lophophora | https://www.erowid.org/plants/cacti/cacti_guide/cacti_guide_lophopho.shtml
  125. Lophophora diffusa (Croizat) Bravo | http://sacredcacti.com/blog/diffusa/
  126. [Estimation of mescaline and pellotine in Lophophora coulter plants (Cactaceae) by means of the oscillographic polarography]. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/647075
  127. Lophophora | https://www.erowid.org/plants/cacti/cacti_guide/cacti_guide_lophopho.shtml
  128. Reported analysis of Lophophora williamsii | http://sacredcacti.com/blog/lophophora-williamsii-analysis/
  129. ALKALOID CONTENT OF REED CANARYGRASS (Phalaris arundinaceae L.) AS DETERMINED BY GAS-LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY | http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.4141/cjps90-132#.VxkL5_krJhE
  130. 130.0 130.1 130.2 Huhn, C., Pütz, M., Dahlenburg, R., & Pyell, U. (2005). Sassafras oils as precursors for the production of synthetic drugs: profiling via MEKC-UVD. In Beiträge zum XIV GTFCh-Symposium: Ausgewaehlte Aspekte der Forensischen Toxikologie (pp. 14-16). https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael_Puetz/publication/270219373_Sassafras_oils_as_precursors_for_the_production_of_synthetic_drugs_Profiling_via_MEKC-UVD/links/54a33d5d0cf256bf8bb0e18a.pdf
  131. (2R), (1'R) and (2R), (1'S)-2-amino-3-(1,2-dicarboxyethylthio)propanoic acids from Amanita pantherina. Antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8477498