Spirituality enhancement can be described as the experience of a shift in a person’s personal beliefs regarding their existence and place within the universe, their relationship to others, and what they value as meaningful in life. It results in a person rethinking the significance they place on certain key concepts, holding some in higher regard than they did previously, and dismissing others as less important. These concepts and notions are not limited to but generally include:
- An increased sense of personal purpose.
- An increased interest in the pursuit of developing personal religious and spiritual ideologies.
- The formation of complex personal religious beliefs.
- An increased sense of compassion towards nature and other people.
- An increased sense of unity and interconnectedness between oneself, nature, "god", and the universe as a whole.
- A decreased sense of value placed upon money and material objects.
- A decreased fear and greater acceptance of death and the finite nature of existence.
Although difficult to fully specify due to the subjective aspect of spirituality enhancement, these changes in to a person's belief system can often result in profound changes in a person's personality which can sometimes be distinctively noticeable to the people around those who undergo it. This shift can occur suddenly but will usually increase gradually over time as a person repeatedly uses the psychoactive substance which is inducing it.
Spirituality enhancement is unlikely to be an isolated effect component but rather the result of a combination of an appropriate setting in conjunction with other coinciding effects such as analysis enhancement, autonomous voice communication, novelty enhancement, perception of interdependent opposites, perception of predeterminism, perception of self-design, personal bias suppression, and unity and interconnectedness. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of dissociatives, such as ketamine, PCP, and DXM.
There have been a number of in-depth scientific studies which unanimously support the legitimate existence of the spiritual effects induced by hallucinogen usage.
Any psychedelic or hallucinogen intentionally used for religious or spiritual purposes is known in the literature as an entheogen. The ritualized usage of entheogens for religious or spiritual purposes dates back thousands of years and is well established throughout both anthropological and modern evidence.
Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:
Anecdotal reports which describe this effect within our experience index include:
- Experience: 1 tab 1P-LSD (oral) - Finding myself within the forest
- Experience: 22mg 2C-B (oral) / 100ug 1P-LSD (sublingual) - My first time tripping alone (2 days in a row)
- Experience:1.5 Grams Psilocybe Cubensis
- Experience:10mg & 20mg Intravenous DPT HCl - Familiar Shapes, Experiencing Death, Immersed in The Light
- Experience:2 grams Psilocybe Cubensis + 2.7 grams Syrian Rue - The Psilohuasca Albino Fox
- Experience:230ug of LSD- An amazing adventure by vikilikepsych
- Experience:3 Grams of Mushrooms - Reset on my Life, Experiencing Satori and the Cosmic Perspective
- Experience:300ug LSD - Profound religious experience
- Experience:30mg (smoked) DMT - The Monolith
- Experience:400ug LSD + weed + nitrous -- Fundamental insights into the universe
- Experience:40mg + Syrian Rue (unknown dosage) - My one bad trip
- Experience:60mg 4-AcO-DMT Nonstop Quasi-Orgasmic Objectless Euphoria
- Experience:LSA (20 HWBR seeds) – A pleasant adventure with a harsh body load
- Experience:LSD (150µg) + Cannabis - 150µg lsd and a shitload of weed
- Experience:Mushrooms and Snuff Films -- Trip Report (3.5 grams)
- Experience:Unknown dosage / 1 tabs - Prolonged unity and messiah syndrome at school
- Gasser, P., Kirchner, K., & Passie, T. (2015). LSD-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with a life-threatening disease: a qualitative study of acute and sustained subjective effects. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(1), 57-68. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881114555249
- Peterman, A. H., Fitchett, G., Brady, M. J., Hernandez, L., & Cella, D. (2002). Measuring spiritual well-being in people with cancer: the functional assessment of chronic illness therapy—Spiritual Well-being Scale (FACIT-Sp). Annals of behavioral medicine, 24(1), 49-58. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15324796ABM2401_06
- Trichter, S., Klimo, J., & Krippner, S. (2009). Changes in spirituality among ayahuasca ceremony novice participants. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 41(2), 121-134. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2009.10399905
- Griffiths, R. R., Johnson, M. W., Richards, W. A., Richards, B. D., McCann, U., & Jesse, R. (2011). Psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences: immediate and persisting dose-related effects. Psychopharmacology, 218(4), 649-665. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2358-5
- Lerner, M., & Lyvers, M. (2006). Values and Beliefs of Psychedelic Drug Users: A Cross-Cultural Study. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 38(2), 143-147. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2006.10399838
- Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., McCann, U., & Jesse, R. (2006). Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology, 187(3), 268-283. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5
- MacLean, K. A., Johnson, M. W., & Griffiths, R. R. (2011). Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(11), 1453-1461. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881111420188
- Kometer, M., Pokorny, T., Seifritz, E., & Volleinweider, F. X. (2015). Psilocybin-induced spiritual experiences and insightfulness are associated with synchronization of neuronal oscillations. Psychopharmacology, 232(19), 3663-3676. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-015-4026-7
- Lyvers, M., & Meester, M. (2012). Illicit use of LSD or psilocybin, but not MDMA or nonpsychedelic drugs, is associated with mystical experiences in a dose-dependent manner. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 44(5), 410-417. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2012.736842
- Ross, S., Bossis, A., Guss, J., Agin-Liebes, G., Malone, T., Cohen, B., ... & Su, Z. (2016). Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30(12), 1165-1180. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881116675512
- Richards, W., Grof, S., Goodman, L., & Kurland, A. (1972). LSD-assisted psychotherapy and the human encounter with death. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 4(2), 121. https://www.erowid.org/references/refs_view.php?ID=6424
- Grob, C. S., Danforth, A. L., Chopra, G. S., Hagerty, M., McKay, C. R., Halberstadt, A. L., & Greer, G. R. (2011). Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer. Archives of general psychiatry, 68(1), 71-78. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.116
- Studerus, E., Kometer, M., Hasler, F., & Vollenweider, F. X. (2011). Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(11), 1434-1452. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881110382466
- Richards, W. A. (2008). The phenomenology and potential religious import of states of consciousness facilitated by psilocybin. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 30(1), 189-199. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2013.785855
- The Marsh Chapel Experiment | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marsh_Chapel_Experiment
- Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., Johnson, M. W., McCann, U. D., & Jesse, R. (2008). Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later. Journal of psychopharmacology, 22(6), 621-632. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881108094300
- Bakalar, J. B. (1985). Social and intellectual attitudes toward drug-induced religious experience. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25(4), 45-66. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167885254008
- Móró, L., Simon, K., Bárd, I., & Rácz, J. (2011). Voice of the psychonauts: Coping, life purpose, and spirituality in psychedelic drug users. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43(3), 188-198. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2011.605661
- Nichols, D. E. (2016). Psychedelics. Pharmacological reviews, 68(2), 264-355. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.115.011478
- Luke, D. (2012). Psychoactive substances and paranormal phenomena: a comprehensive review. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 31(1), 12. https://digitalcommons.ciis.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1097&context=ijts-transpersonalstudies
- Luke, D. P., & Kittenis, M. (2005). A preliminary survey of paranormal experiences with psychoactive drugs. Journal of Parapsychology, 69(2), 305-327. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/42bd/1b8c1734a0bf31b57af957228052b6819cce.pdf
- Carl A. P. Ruck; Jeremy Bigwood; Danny Staples; Jonathan Ott; R. Gordon Wasson (January–June 1979). "Entheogens". Journal of Psychedelic Drugs. 11 (1–2): 145–146. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1979.10472098
- Guzmán, G. (2008). Hallucinogenic mushrooms in Mexico: An overview. Economic Botany, 62(3), 404-412. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-008-9033-8
- Bruhn, J. G., De Smet, P. A., El-Seedi, H. R., & Beck, O. (2002). Mescaline use for 5700 years. The Lancet, 359(9320), 1866. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08701-9
- El-Seedi, H. R., De Smet, P. A., Beck, O., Possnert, G., & Bruhn, J. G. (2005). Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 101(1), 238-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.022
- Pettigrew, J. (2011). Iconography in Bradshaw rock art: breaking the circularity. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 94(5), 403-417. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-0938.2011.00648.x
- Carod-Artal, F. J. (2015). Hallucinogenic drugs in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures. Neurología (English edition), 30(1), 42-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrl.2011.07.003
- Wasson, R. G. (1971). The soma of the Rig Veda: what was it?. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 169-187. https://doi.org/10.2307/600096
- de Rios, M. D. (1977). Hallucinogenic ritual as theatre. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 9(3), 265-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1977.10472056