|Summary sheet: 2C-E|
|Common names||2C-E, "Eternity", "Aquarust"|
|Routes of Administration|
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine (also known as 2C-E, or colloquially as "Aquarust" and "Eternity") is a lesser-known psychedelic substance of the phenethylamine class. It is a member of the 2C-x family of psychedelic phenethylamines, which are closely related to the classical psychedelic mescaline. Like other psychedelics, it is thought to produce its effects by binding to serotonin receptors in the brain, although the precise mechanism is poorly understood.
2C-E was first synthesized and tested for human activity by Alexander Shulgin in 1977, who documented his findings in the 1991 book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved"). It began to appear in drug seizures around 2004. While primarily distributed online as a research chemical, it is also sometimes distributed on the street as 'mescaline' or 'synthetic mescaline'.
Subjective effects include open and closed-eye visuals, time distortion, enhanced introspection, ego loss, and euphoria. User reports characterize 2C-E as a highly unpredictable, dose-sensitive psychedelic that is capable of producing strong visual distortions along with a significant "body load", which includes nausea and bodily discomfort.
Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 2C-E, and it has a limited history of human use. Many reports indicate that the safe use of this substance may be overly difficult for those who are not already experienced with hallucinogens. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
History and culture
This History and culture section is a stub.
As a result, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
2C-E was first synthesized and tested for human activity by Alexander Shulgin in 1977, who documented his findings in the 1991 book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved"). It is a member of the so-called "magical half-dozen" which refers to Shulgin's self-rated most important phenethylamine-derived compounds, all of which except mescaline he developed and synthesized himself. They are found within the first book of PiHKAL, and are as follows: Mescaline, DOM, 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.
2C-E or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine is a phenethylamine featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain. 2C-E contains methoxy functional groups CH3O- attached to carbons R2 and R5 and an ethyl chain bound to carbon R4 of the phenyl ring. 2C-E belongs to the 2C family of phenethylamines which contain methoxy groups on the 2 and 5 positions of the benzene ring.
2C-E's psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptor as a partial agonist. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience remains the subject of ongoing scientific investigation.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a research literature based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be regarded with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely with higher doses and may include addiction, serious injury, or death.
- Stimulation - 2C-E is usually considered to be very energetic and stimulating in a fashion that is comparable to that of MDMA, although it is 'encouraged' instead of 'forced'.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of 2C-E is manifested as one of the most proportionally intense in comparison to almost all of the classical psychedelics. The sensation itself can be described as an intense and slightly uncomfortable energetic pins and needles sensation that constantly encompasses a person's entire body. It is usually felt over the surface of the skin but occasionally manifests itself in the form of a continuously shifting, tingling sensation that travels up and down the body in intermittent waves. Alongside this, many users report uncomfortable body feelings characterized by dysphoric aches and urges to shift the position of one's body and prolonged tensing of unusual combinations of muscle groups.
- Physical euphoria - Feelings of frequent but unpredictable rushes of warm physical euphoria are extremely common and very pleasurable. These move from the top of the head downwards before enveloping one's whole body.
- Tactile enhancement
- Bodily control enhancement
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Muscle contractions
- Increased heart rate
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased perspiration
- Nausea - Mild to extreme nausea is consistently reported when consumed in moderate to high doses and either passes once the user has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
- Frequent urination
- Pupil dilation
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of entactogenic stimulants like MDMA.
- Seizure - This is a rarely observed effect but is believed to be a risk in those predisposed to them, especially while in physically taxing conditions such as being dehydrated, fatigued, undernourished, or overheated.
- Drifting (melting, flowing, breathing and morphing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed, slow and smooth in motion, static in appearance and unrealistic/cartoon-like in style.
- After images
- Colour shifting
- Scenery slicing
- Symmetrical texture repetition
The visual geometry that is produced by this substance can be comprehensively described as structured in their organization, organic in geometric style, intricate in complexity, large in size, fast and smooth in motion, colorful in scheme, glossy in color, sharp in their edges and equally rounded and angular in their corners. It gives off a contradictory natural and synthetic feel that at higher dosages are significantly more likely to result in states of Level 8B visual geometry over Level 8A.
2C-E produces a full range of high-level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is more consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. This particularly holds true in comparison to other substances within the family of psychedelic phenethylamines. These effects include:
- Internal hallucination (settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - In comparison to other psychedelics such as LSD, 2C-E is extremely reliable at producing hallucinations embedded within visual geometry. This particular effect commonly contains hallucinations with scenarios, settings, and concepts. They are more likely to present themselves within dark environments and can be described as internal in their manifestation, lucid in believability, interactive in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
The head space of 2C-E is described by many as one which is both insightful and relatively unaltered in its thought processes even at moderate to high dosages. Some users suggest that 2C-E may be even more clearheaded than 2C-B or 2C-C especially at higher dosages.
- Analysis enhancement - This component is introspection dominant and consistently manifested only in the context of a non-social setting in which the user is alone.
- Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement - This component is consistently manifested only in the context of social settings in which one is within the company of others. These feelings are a little weaker and less sharp than those produced by substances such as MDMA and 2C-B but still often prove strong enough to provide long-lasting therapeutic effects.
- Conceptual thinking
- Creativity enhancement
- Emotion enhancement
- Immersion enhancement
- Increased music appreciation
- Memory suppression
- Novelty enhancement
- Personal bias suppression
- Increased libido
- Thought acceleration
- Thought connectivity
- Time distortion
- Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring, but seems to only be a prominent part of the experience among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states. However, many reports indicate that this substance is relatively reliable at inducing synaesthetic states in those who are predisposed to them.
- Cannabis - When used in combination with cannabis, both the visual and cognitive effects of 2C-E can be intensified and extended with extreme efficiency. This should be used with extreme caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics as this can also amplify the anxiety, confusion and psychosis producing aspects of cannabis significantly.
- Dissociatives - When used in combination with dissociatives, the geometry, euphoria, dissociation and hallucinatory effects are often greatly enhanced. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids while under the influence of 2C-E have significantly more vivid visuals than dissociatives alone present, and more intense internal hallucinations, and corresponding confusion which can spontaneously manifest as delusions and psychosis.
- MDMA - When used in conjunction with MDMA, the physical and cognitive effects of MDMA are amplified. The visual, physical and cognitive effects of 2C-E are also intensified with an overwhelming euphoric pleasure manifested through uniquely pleasurable body highs and headspaces, and uniquely colorful and awe-inspiring visuals. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, and it is best to start with markedly lower dosages than one would take for both substances individually. Additionally, users should be aware that there are reasons to believe that this combination may result in unforeseen neurotoxic effects, so a strong sense of caution and independent research are highly advised if one decides to experiment with this combination.
- Alcohol - This interaction is not typically recommended due to alcohol’s ability to cause dehydration, nausea and physical fatigue which can negatively affect a trip if taken in moderate to high dosages. This combination is, however, typically considered to be safe in low doses and can often "take the edge off" a trip as well as dull its psychedelic effects in a fashion somewhat similar to benzodiazepines, albeit in a more physically distressing manner.
- Benzodiazepines - When used in combination with benzodiazepines, benzodiazepines can, depending on the dosage, slightly to completely reduce the intensity of the cognitive, physical and visual effects of an 2C-E trip. They are very efficient at stopping "bad trips" at the cost of amnesia and reduced trip intensity. Caution is advised when acquiring them for this purpose due to the very high addiction potential that benzodiazepines possess.
- Psychedelics - When used in combination with other psychedelics, each substance's physical, cognitive and visual effects intensify and synergize strongly. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, and for this reason generally not advised. If choosing to combine psychedelics, it is recommended to start with significantly lower dosages than one would take for either substance individually.
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
- Experience: 25mg 2C-E (oral) - A mindblowing experience
- Experience:2C-E (20mg, insufflated) - Mind=Blown
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 2C-E use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. This is because 2C-E is a research chemical with a limited history of human usage.
Anecdotal reports suggest that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (although nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
Tolerance and addiction potential
Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is not unreasonable to assume that like psychedelics in general, 2C-E is not habit-forming and that the desire to use it can actually decrease with use.
Tolerance to the effects of 2C-E are built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 1-2 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 2-4 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 2C-E presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics but not evenly, meaning that after the consumption of 2C-E, some psychedelics will have significant reduced effects while some others will only be slighly affected.
Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can suddenly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The following list includes some known dangerous combinations (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them). Independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo) should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
- Cannabis - Cannabis may have an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of 2C-E. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid unintentional overdose.
- Stimulants - Stimulants like amphetamine, cocaine or methylphenidate affect many parts of the brain and alter dopaminergic function. This combination can increase the risk of anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and thought loops. This interaction may also result in an elevated risk of mania and psychosis.
- Tramadol - Tramadol is well-documented to lower the seizure threshold and psychedelics may act to trigger seizures in susceptible individuals.
- Austria: 2C-E is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich). In its Schedule II, the further specifying NPSV (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Verordnung Österreich) explicitly bans all substituted phenetylamines.
- Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- Canada: 2C-E would be considered Schedule III as it is a derivative of 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine.
- China: As of October 2015 2C-E is a controlled substance in China.
- Denmark: 2C-E is a Schedule I drug.
- Finland: The possession, production and sale is illegal.
- Germany: 2C-E is controlled under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I) as of December 13, 2014. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.
- Israel: Possession, production and sale is illegal.
- Latvia: 2C-E is a Schedule I controlled substance.
- New Zealand: 2C-E is a Class C drug.
- Sweden: 2C-E is a Schedule I drug.
- Switzerland: 2C-E is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis E.
- United Kingdom: 2C-E is a Class A drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the phenethylamine catch-all clause.
- United States: 2C-E is a Schedule I drug.
- "Compound Summary: 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine: 2.4 Synonyms". PubChem. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
- Alexander Shulgin (1980). Pharmacology Notes II (The Shulgin Lab Books) (PDF). Lafayette, CA, USA: Erowid. p. 236.
- Alexander Shulgin; Ann Shulgin (1991). "#24. 2C-E". PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. United States: Transform Press. ISBN 0963009605. OCLC 1166889264.
- "2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Ethylphenethylamine (2C-E) encountered in Ft. Pierce, Florida and Royal Oak, Michigan" (PDF). Microgram Bulletin. Drug Enforcement Agency. 37 (11): 193–194. November 2004. OCLC 54464390.
- Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. ISSN 1556-9039.
- "Bundesrecht konsolidiert: Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Verordnung" (in German). June 26, 2019. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
- "RESOLUÇÃO DA DIRETORIA COLEGIADA - RDC N° 130, DE 2 DE DEZEMBRO DE 2016" (in Portuguese). Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) [Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA)]. December 5, 2016.
- "Schedule III". Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA). Isomer Design. Retrieved October 10, 2020.
- "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). 国家食品药品监督管理总局 [China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA)]. September 27, 2015. Archived from the original on September 6, 2017.
- "Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Betäubungsmitteln: Anlage I" (in German). Bundesamt für Justiz [Federal Office of Justice]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- "Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 2014 Teil I Nr. 57 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag (published December 12, 2014). December 5, 2014. p. 1999-2002. ISSN 0341-1095. OCLC 231871244.
- "Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Betäubungsmitteln: § 29" (in German). Bundesamt für Justiz [Federal Office of Justice]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem" (in Latvian). VSIA Latvijas Vēstnesis. November 10, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- "Schedule 2: Part I: Class A Drugs". "Misuse of Drugs Act 1971". UK Government. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
- Ronald Weich (Assistant Attorney General) (September 30, 2011). "Additional Synthetic Drugs for Inclusion in section 202(c) of the Controlled Substances Act" (PDF). Letter to F. James Sensenbrenner Jr. (Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security). Office of Legislative Affairs.