|Summary sheet: DOM|
|Common names||DOM, STP (Serenity, Tranquility, and Peace)|
|Routes of Administration|
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (also known as DOM and STP or "Serenity, Tranquility and Peace") is a lesser-known psychedelic substance of the amphetamine class. DOM is a member of the DOx family of compounds which are known for their high potency, long duration, and mixture of psychedelic and stimulant effects. It produces its effects by acting on serotonin receptors in the brain.
DOM was first synthesized and tested in 1963 by Alexander Shulgin. It attained some popularity during the summer of 1967 under the name "STP" ("Serenity, Tranquility, and Peace"), but its use was short-lived due to its side effects. In 1991, the synthesis and pharmacology of DOM was published in Shulgin's book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved")..
Over the years, DOM has gained a reputation for being a highly dose-sensitive psychedelic that is often sold on blotting paper and known for its strong visuals, body load and neutral, analytical headspace. Many reports also indicate that the effects of this chemical may be overly difficult to use for those who are not already experienced with psychedelics.
History and culture
DOM was first synthesized and tested in 1963 by Alexander Shulgin, who was investigating the effect of 4-position substitutions on psychedelic amphetamines. DOM is part of the so-called "magical half-dozen" which refers to Shulgin's self-rated most important phenethylamine compounds, all of which except mescaline he developed and synthesized himself. They are found within the first book of PiHKAL and are as follows: Mescaline, DOM, 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.
In mid-1967, tablets containing 20 mg (later 10 mg) of DOM were widely distributed in the Haight-Ashbury District of San Francisco under the name of "STP" (short for "Serenity, Tranquility, and Peace"). This short-lived appearance of DOM on the black market proved disastrous for several reasons. First, the tablets contained an excessively high dose of the chemical. This, combined with DOM’s slow onset of action (which encouraged some users, familiar with substances that have quicker onsets, such as LSD, to re-dose) and its remarkably long duration, caused many users to panic and sent some to the emergency room. Second, treatment of such overdoses was complicated by the fact that it was unknown at the time that the tablets called "STP" were DOM.
DOM, or 4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine, is a molecule of the substituted amphetamine class. Amphetamines are substituted phenethylamines containing a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain and a methyl group bound to the alpha carbon Rα. DOM contains methoxy functional groups (OCH3) attached to carbons R2 and R5 and a methyl group attached to carbon R4 of the phenyl ring. DOM is the amphetamine analogue of the phenethylamine 2C-D.
This is one of the last of the experimental compounds within the phenethylamine family on which any animal toxicity studies were performed prior to human studies. The LD50 of DOM is between 100 - 125 mg/kg for a mouse. An effective dose in a human of 2 mg (for an 80 kg man) is equivalent to 25 μg/kg.
As with DOI, the presence of a heavy atom, the bromine atom, in DOB makes the radioactive isotope labelled material a powerful research tool.
DOM is a selective partial agonist at the 5-HT2 receptor family. Its psychedelic effects are mediated by its agonistic properties at the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, but less so on the 5-HT2C receptor. Due to its selectivity, DOM is often used in scientific research when studying the 5-HT2 receptor subfamily. DOM is a chiral molecule, and R-(-)-DOM is the more active enantiomer, functioning as a potent agonist of the serotonin family of receptors (mainly of the 5-HT2 subtype). However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.
The 2,6-dimethoxy positional isomer of DOM, known as Ψ-DOM, is also mentioned in PiHKAL as being active, as is the alpha-ethyl homologue Ariadne. Analogues where the methoxy groups at the 2,5- positions of the aromatic ring have been altered have also been synthesised and tested as part of an effort to identify the binding mode of DOM at the 5-HT2A receptor. Both the 2- and 5- O-desmethyl derivatives 2-DM-DOM and 5-DM-DOM, and the 2- and 5- ethyl analogues 2-Et-DOM and 5-Et-DOM have been tested, but in all cases were significantly less potent than the corresponding methoxy compound, showing the importance of the oxygen lone pairs in 5-HT2A binding.
There is a strong implication that some metabolic conversion occurs in the lung, and it is only after this that the truly active metabolite is available for central action. This is consistent with the relatively slow onset of effect, and the very long duration of action.
User reports suggest that DOM is relatively clear-headed and absent of side-effects in comparison to DOC or DOB. Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, DOM is usually considered to be mildly stimulating at levels which do not become overwhelming, encouraging users to move around, run, dance, climb and generally engage in physical activities. In comparison, it is more stimulating than psychedelics like psilocin, but less stimulating than most compounds of the DOx family.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of DOM is reported to be somewhat intense in comparison to most classical psychedelics. However, in comparison to DOC and the overwhelming forcefulness of 2C-E, it can be considered relatively mild and natural in feel. The sensation itself can be described as a constantly present yet somewhat mild energetic pins and needles sensation that encompasses one's entire body. This is coupled with a euphoric, fast-moving, sharp and location specific tingling sensation. It is usually felt over every square inch of the skin, but occasionally manifests itself in the form of a continuously shifting tingling sensation that travels up and down the body in spontaneous waves.
- Tactile enhancement - Feelings of enhanced tactile sensation are consistently present at moderate levels throughout most DOM experiences. If Level 8A visuals are reached, an intense sensation of suddenly becoming aware of and being able to feel every single nerve ending across a person's entire body all at once is consistently present.
- Bodily control enhancement
- Bodily pressures
- Increased heart rate
- Increased blood pressure
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Increased bodily temperature
- Increased perspiration
- Muscle contractions
- Muscle spasms
- Muscle cramps
- Nausea - Mild to extreme nausea is typically reported at moderate to high dosages and either passes once the user has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
- Appetite suppression
- Vasoconstriction - This effect is usually only present at higher dosages, but can be particularly uncomfortable and persistent.
- Increased salivation
- Pupil dilation
- Teeth grinding
Reports describe DOM as having less pronounced visuals proportional to it's accompanying physical and mental effects at low to moderate dosages. Higher ones do tend to display a unique set of visual effects which is not found with similar substances.
- Drifting (melting, flowing, breathing and morphing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed, slow and smooth in motion, static in appearance and unrealistic/cartoon-like in style.
- Colour shifting
- Depth perception distortions
- Perspective distortions
- Symmetrical texture repetition
- After images
- Brightness alteration
- Scenery slicing
The visual geometry of DOM is described as being very unique and may share some similarity with 2C-D. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as intricate in style, equally algorithmic and abstract in form, equally synthetic and organic in style, structured in organization, brightly lit in lighting, multicolored in scheme, glossy in shading, sharp in edges, large in size, fast in speed, smooth in motion, equal in rounded and angular corners, non-immersive in-depth and consistent in intensity. Higher dosages are significantly more likely to result in states of level 8A visual geometry over level 8B.
DOM produces a full range of high-level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is more or less consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. These effects include:
- Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - In comparison to other psychedelics such as LSD, DOM is extremely high in its internal hallucinations when approaching higher dosages. This particular effect commonly contains hallucinations with scenarios, settings, concepts and autonomous entity contact. They can be comprehensively described in terms of their variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability and geometry-based in appearance. They are more common within dark environments and can be described as internal in their manifestation, lucid in believability, interactive in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
The cognitive effects of DOM are described by many as a combination of prominent mental stimulation and a powerful enhancement of a person's current mental state.
- Analysis enhancement
- Empathy, love, and sociability enhancement - This component is consistently manifested only in the context of social settings in which one is within the company of others. These feelings of sociability, love and empathy are a little weaker and less sharp than those found on substances such as MDMA and 2C-B, but still prove strong enough to provide long-lasting therapeutic effects.
- Conceptual thinking
- Emotion enhancement
- Immersion enhancement
- Novelty enhancement
- Increased music appreciation
- Memory suppression
- Ego death - While DOM is technically able to produce states of ego dissolution, it tends to more often than not develop only in extremely high doses, with grave physical and mental side effects being apparent and is often of a terrifying nature.
- Personal bias suppression
- Thought acceleration
- Thought connectivity
- Time distortion
- Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring, but seems to only be a prominent part of the experience among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.
- Transpersonal states on DOM are reported to occur less reliably and consistently than classical psychedelics. This can perhaps be attributed its the prominent physical and stimulating effects, which tends to interfere with the user's ability to fully immerse themselves in the experience.
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational DOM use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the substance by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
DOM is not habit-forming and the desire to use it can decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.
Tolerance to the effects of DOM is built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 3 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 7 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). DOM presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of DOM all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.
The risk of a DOx overdose is present starting in or past the heavy dose range with sensitive people, or when a DOx is mixed with other substances, particularly stimulants or MAOIs. Non-oral routes also seem to exhibit a higher chance of overdosing, perhaps owing to differences in bioavailability, potency and unpredictability of dosage and effects. The effects of a DOx overdose typically include bizarre, delusional and sometimes violent behavior, amnesia, numbness, confusion and anxiety. The user may not be able to communicate and can be severely agitated. At appropriately high doses, more serious side effects such as psychosis, panic attacks and seizures which in turn further affect a dangerously elevated heart rate, blood pressure and vasoconstriction may occur. Severe vasoconstriction typically develops to its peak several hours into the intoxication and may require medical assistance if blood flow is significantly cut off for extended periods of time.
In the event of an overdose, benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can be administered to mitigate the hyperagitative effects. A powerful vasodilator may also need to be administered to prevent a hypertensive emergency, or in more serious cases, necrosis, organ failure and death from the resulting hypoxia. As a result, emergency medical services should always be sought in the event of a DOx overdose.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold and psychedelics may act as triggers for seizures, particularly in those who are predisposed to them.
- Stimulants - Stimulants affect many parts of the brain. Combined with psychedelics, stimulation can turn into uncontrollable anxiety, panic, thought loops and paranoia. This interaction may cause elevated risk of psychosis.
- Lithium - Lithium is often used as treatment for bipolar disorder. It may possibly cause elevated risk of seizures and psychosis due to its glutaminergic and GABAergic effects.
Internationally, mescaline is part of the the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 as a Schedule I substance.
- Australia: Australia has a blanket ban over all substituted phenethylamines including the entire DOx family.
- Austria: DOM is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).
- Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344 as "STP".
- Belgium: DOM is a Schedule I drug.
- Canada: DOM is a Schedule I drug.
- Germany: DOM is controlled under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I), former: Opiumgesetz (Opium Act) as of April 15, 1971. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.
- Latvia: DOM is a Schedule I controlled substance.
- New Zealand: DOM is a Class A drug.
- Switzerland: DOM is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis D.
- United Kingdom: DOM is a Class A drug.
- United States: DOM is a Schedule I drug.
- Czech Republic: DOM is a Schedule I drug.
- Alexander Shulgin; Ann Shulgin (1991). PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. United States: Transform Press. pp. 53–56. ISBN 0963009605. OCLC 1166889264.
- Berkeley, B. (16 April 1967). "STP's faster, here's why". Independent Voices: 3–5.
- Erowid Online Books : “PIHKAL” - The Chemical Story
- #62 DOB PiHKAL
- #68 DOM PiHKAL
- Sanders-Bush, E., Burris, K. D., Knoth, K. (September 1988). "Lysergic acid diethylamide and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine are partial agonists at serotonin receptors linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 246 (3): 924–928. ISSN 0022-3565.
- Eckler, J. R., Chang-Fong, J., Rabin, R. A., Smith, C., Teitler, M., Glennon, R. A., Winter, J. C. (July 2003). "Behavioral characterization of 2-O-desmethyl and 5-O-desmethyl metabolites of the phenylethylamine hallucinogen DOM". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 75 (4): 845–852. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(03)00159-X. ISSN 0091-3057.
- Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., Abdollahi, M. (June 2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. ISSN 1556-9039.
- "CONVENTION ON PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES 1971" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- New Psychoactive Substances (National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre 2014) | https://comorbidity.edu.au/sites/default/files/cre/page/New%20Psychoactive%20Substances.pdf
- Branch, L. S. (2022), Consolidated federal laws of Canada, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
- "Fünfte Verordnung über die den Betäubungsmitteln gleichgestellten Stoffe" (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- "Anlage I BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- Zaudējis spēku - Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem
- "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- Misuse of Drugs Act 1971
- 463/2013 Sb. Nařízení vlády o seznamech návykových látek