DOB - PsychonautWiki
Summary sheet: DOB
DOB
DOB.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names DOB, Brolamfetamine, Bromo-DMA
Substitutive name 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine
Systematic name 1-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Amphetamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 0.2 mg
Light 0.2 - 0.75 mg
Common 0.75 - 1.75 mg
Strong 1.75 - 3 mg
Heavy 3 mg +
Duration
Total 14 - 24 hours
Onset 30 - 90 minutes
Come up 2 - 4 hours
Peak 6 - 10 hours
Offset 4 - 8 hours
After effects 4 - 16 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Interactions
Cannabis
Stimulants
Tramadol
Lithium


4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (also known as dimethoxybromoamphetamine, brolamfetamine, bromo-DMA, and commonly as DOB) is a psychedelic substance of the amphetamine class that produces unusually long-lived psychedelic effects when administered. It is a member of the DOx family of psychedelic amphetamines.

While DOB had first been synthesized in 1967 and briefly tested in 1971, it took until the 1991 publication of the book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved") by Alexander Shulgin to be documented in-depth.[1]

Today, DOB is used as a recreational drug and an entheogen. It is still rarely sold online but is more commonly found in the streets the form of misrepresented LSD due to its ability to fit onto similar-sized blotter paper.[citation needed]

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of DOB in humans. Along with its sensitive dose-response, unusually long and unpredictable duration, many reports also suggest that this substance may be overly difficult to use safely for those who are not already very experienced with using hallucinogens. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Chemistry

DOB or 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-amphetamine is a molecule of the amphetamine class. Amphetamines are substituted phenethylamines containing a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain and a methyl group bound to the alpha carbon Rα. DOB contains methoxy functional groups OCH3 attached to carbons R2 and R5 as well as a bromine atom attached to carbon R4 of the phenyl ring. DOB is the amphetamine analogue of the phenethylamine 2C-B.[1]

DOB has a stereocenter and R-(–)-DOB is the eutomer. This is an important finding as it is suggestive that it is targeting different receptors relative to most other phenethylamines where the R-isomer serves as the distomer. The toxicity of DOB is not fully known, although high doses may cause serious vasoconstriction of the extremities. DOB is one of the most potent compounds in PiHKAL.

While the active dose is similar to that of DOI, another psychedelic amphetamine, DOB has been shown to have a higher efficacy in triggering downstream effects mediated by 5-HT2 receptors,[2] making it likely to be slightly more dangerous than DOI in overdose, due to greater vasoconstrictive action. Omission of the amphetamine related α-methyl leads to 2C-B, a compound that possesses a lower affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor and is a weaker receptor agonist which results in drastically reduced vasoconstriction.

Pharmacology

Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

DOB's psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2 receptor family as a partial agonist. DOB appears to be quite selective for the 5-HT2B receptor and is often used in scientific research when studying the 5-HT2 receptor subfamily. It has been suggested that DOB is a prodrug metabolized in the lungs.[1][3] Due to its selectivity, DOB is often used in scientific research when studying the 5-HT2 receptor subfamily. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

Excessively high doses of this hallucinogen may cause diffuse arterial spasm.[4] The vasospasm responded readily to intra-arterial and intravenous vasodilators, such as tolazoline.

Subjective effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.

It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.

Physical effects
 

Visual effects
 

Cognitive effects
 

Multi-sensory effects
 

Transpersonal effects
 

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational DOB use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. This is because DOB is a research chemical with very little history of human usage.

Anecdotal reports from those who have tried DOB suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the substance by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

DOB is not habit-forming, and the desire to use it can decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.

Tolerance to the effects of DOB is built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 4-7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 7-10 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). DOB presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of DOB all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.

Overdose

The risk of a DOx overdose is present starting in or past the heavy dose range with sensitive people, or when a DOx is mixed with other substances, particularly stimulants or MAOIs. Non-oral routes also seem to exhibit a higher chance of overdosing, perhaps owing to differences in bioavailability, potency and unpredictability of dosage and effects. The effects of a DOx overdose typically include bizarre, delusional and sometimes violent behavior, amnesia, numbness, confusion and anxiety. The user may not be able to communicate and can be severely agitated. At appropriately high doses, more serious side effects such as psychosis, panic attacks and seizures which in turn further affect a dangerously elevated heart rate, blood pressure and vasoconstriction may occur.[citation needed] Severe vasoconstriction typically develops to its peak several hours into the intoxication and may require medical assistance if blood flow is significantly cut off for extended periods of time.

In the event of an overdose, benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can be administered to mitigate the hyperagitative effects.[citation needed] A powerful vasodilator may also need to be administered to prevent a hypertensive emergency, or in more serious cases, necrosis, organ failure and death from the resulting hypoxia.[citation needed] As a result, emergency medical services should always be sought in the event of a DOx overdose.

Dangerous interactions

Disclaimer: Psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The following list includes some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).

Independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo) should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.

Legal status

Internationally, DOB is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[6]

  • Australia: DOB is listed as a Schedule II substance in Australia.[citation needed]
  • Austria: DOB is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).[citation needed]
  • Canada: DOB is listed as a Schedule 1 as it is an analogue of amphetamine.[7]
  • Germany: DOB is controlled under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I)[8] as of September 1, 1984.[9] It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.[10]
  • Latvia: DOB is a Schedule I controlled substance.[11]
  • New Zealand: DOB is Schedule I (Class A) in New Zealand.[citation needed] DOB would also qualify as an analogue under New Zealand's catch-all analogues section in Schedule 3 / Class C of their drug laws which would make 2C-I, 2C-E, DOI, DOB, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine Schedule 3 compounds in the country.[citation needed]
  • Poland: DOB is controlled in Poland.[12]
  • Switzerland: DOB is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis D.[13]
  • United Kingdom: DOB is Schedule I/Class A in the U.K., making it illegal to sell, buy, or possess without a license.[citation needed]
  • United States: DOB is Schedule I in the U.S., making it illegal to sell, buy, gift, produce or possess without a DEA license.[citation needed]

See also

External links

Discussion

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Alexander Shulgin; Ann Shulgin (1991). "#62. DOB". PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. United States: Transform Press. ISBN 0963009605. OCLC 1166889264. 
  2. Parrish, Jason C.; Braden, Michael R.; Gundy, Emily; Nichols, David E. (2005-12-01). "Differential phospholipase C activation by phenylalkylamine serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonists". Journal of Neurochemistry. 95 (6): 1575–1584. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03477.x. ISSN 1471-4159. PMID 16277614. S2CID 24005602
  3. Alexander Shulgin (May 3, 2005). "DOB and Other Possible Prodrugs". Ask Dr. Shulgin Online. Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics (CCLE). 
  4. Bowen, J. Scott, MD; Davis, Gary B., MD; Kearney, Thomas E., PharmD (1983-03-18). "Diffuse Vascular Spasm Associated With 4-Bromo-2,5-Dimethoxyamphetamine Ingestion". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 249 (11): 1477–1479. doi:10.1001/jama.1983.03330350053028. PMID 6827726.
  5. Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. ISSN 1556-9039. 
  6. "List of psychotropic substances under international control (Green List)" (PDF) (23rd ed.). International Narcotics Control Board (INCB). August 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 2, 2007. 
  7. "Schedule III". Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA). Isomer Design. Retrieved October 10, 2020. 
  8. "Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Betäubungsmitteln: Anlage I" (in German). Bundesamt für Justiz [Federal Office of Justice]. Retrieved December 10, 2019. 
  9. "Erste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 1984 Teil I Nr. 36 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag (published August 8, 1984). August 6, 1984. p. 1081-1086. ISSN 0341-1095. OCLC 231871244. 
  10. "Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Betäubungsmitteln: § 29" (in German). Bundesamt für Justiz [Federal Office of Justice]. Retrieved December 10, 2019. 
  11. "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem" (in Latvian). VSIA Latvijas Vēstnesis. November 10, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  12. "Details Servlet". Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej [Sejm of the Republic of Poland]. [dead link]
  13. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.