An external hallucination is defined as the perception of a visual hallucination which displays itself seamlessly into the external environment as if it were actually happening. This is in stark contrast to internal hallucinations, such as dreams, that occur exclusively within an imagined environment and can typically only be viewed with closed eyes.
This effect is capable of manifesting itself across the 4 different levels of intensity described below:
- Fleeting hallucinations - At the lowest level, external hallucinations generally consist of movement within the peripheral vision and ill-defined, fleeting hallucinations which disappear once a person double takes.
- Vaguely defined hallucinations - At this level, the hallucinations are visible within one's direct line of sight, but are not fully defined in their appearance. This means that, although visible, they do not look completely detailed and are often extremely blurry or semi-translucent with little, if any, colour.
- Partially defined hallucinations - At this level, the hallucinations become distinct enough in their detail and vividness to extend beyond transparent, colourless, or blurry manifestations. However, they still remain unconvincing and do not quite live up to the detail of everyday life.
- Fully defined hallucinations - At this level, the hallucinations have become completely realistic and will rarely disappear simply because a person double takes. They are now capable of a completely convincing and photorealistic appearance and their behaviour becomes far more lifelike. Additionally, they may become numerous enough to fully engulf the entirety of the person's environment.
Alongside a specific levelling system, there are also certain environmental factors that directly alter both the likelihood of external hallucinations manifesting themselves and the level of detail of which they are rendered with. For example, the more unfamiliar with the external environment a person is, the more likely it is that this effect will manifest itself. Cluttered areas tend to produce more external hallucinations and the amount of light within a room is inversely proportional to the intensity of them, with less light leading to significantly more hallucinations and more light leading to fewer, although more detailed, hallucinations.
The content within these external hallucinations can be further broken down into four distinct subcomponents. These are described and documented within their own dedicated articles, each of which are listed below:
- Autonomous entities
- Object activation
- Perspective hallucination
- Scenarios and plots
- Settings, sceneries, and landscapes
- Shadow people
It is worth noting that the content, style, and general behaviour of an external hallucination is often largely dependent on the emotional state of the person experiencing it. For example, a person who is emotionally stable and generally happy will usually be more prone to experiencing neutral, interesting, or positive hallucinations. In contrast, however, a person who is emotionally unstable and generally unhappy will usually be more prone to experiencing sinister, fear-inducing, and negative hallucinations.
External hallucinations are often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delirium, internal hallucinations and delusions. They are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of deliriant compounds, such as DPH, datura, and benzydamine. However, they can also occur less commonly under the influence of psychedelics, dissociatives, stimulant psychosis, and sleep deprivation.
The specific differences between each potential style of external hallucination can be broken down into the following variations:
- Lucid vs. Delirious - A person experiencing a hallucinatory state can maintain a consistent level of awareness regarding the fact that none of these events are actually occurring and that the effects are simply the result of a drug-induced hallucination. In contrast with this, hallucinations may also become completely believable, no matter how nonsensical they may be, in exactly the same way that a person does not have any problem accepting absurd and non-linear plots within our dreams.
- Interactive vs. Fixed – Hallucinatory states can either present themselves as completely separate in a manner that is similar to watching a video play out in front of one's field of vision or they can be completely interactive. For example, it is entirely possible to converse with autonomous entities or interact with imagined objects in a fashion similar to lucid dreaming.
- New vs. Old experiences – In terms of their subject matter, hallucinations can either be entirely new experiences or they can be old, everyday experiences and replayed memories.
- Controllable vs. Autonomous – Imagery and hallucinations can be partially to completely controllable. This can be described as their content always seeming to perfectly follow and fit the general topic and subject matter of one's current thought stream, with varying levels of control. In contrast, autonomous hallucinations are completely spontaneous in their subject matter and entirely uncontrollable.
- Geometry-based vs. Solid – Hallucinations can be comprised of condensed psychedelic geometry or they can appear to be made from realistic materials depending on the substance consumed.
Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:
- Amanita muscaria
Anecdotal reports which describe this effect within our experience index include:
- Experience: 18 mg 2C-I - Visually intense and strong bodily sensations
- Experience: 22mg 2C-B (oral) / 100ug 1P-LSD (sublingual) - My first time tripping alone (2 days in a row)
- Experience: 450 Datura seeds - Talking to Ghosts
- Experience: 550mg DPH - My First Time on DPH
- Experience: 660ug LSD - First bad trip
- Experience:1050 µg 1cP-LSD - The matrix
- Experience:1064mgs - Fascinating DXM experience - Unusual effects
- Experience:1mg 25c-NBOMe - Experiment in my room
- Experience:2 tabs DOB - My DOB Nightmare
- Experience:2.5g Mushrooms + 500mg DMT
- Experience:2.5g Peganum Harmala + 250µg LSD - Ecstasy of Love and Misanthropy
- Experience:2.5g Syrian rue + 6g Mimosa Hostilis - Becoming God (my second experience with unity)
- Experience:20mg (insufflated) - permanent all-encompassing states of unity and interconnectedness
- Experience:20mg - A profound sense of oneness
- Experience:20mg - I looked up and saw an angry god-like figure made of clouds glaring down at me
- Experience:20x Extract - a tall humanoid figure wearing a white cloak
- Experience:225ug LSD + 9g cubensis - Galactic Melt and the Meverse
- Experience:25mg DMT - Your wall can't save you
- Experience:2C-P (approx. 35mg) - Asymmetrical Terror and the Geometric Sea
- Experience:2mg 25C-NBOMe - Experimental trip to test personal limits of NBOMes
- Experience:3.5g psilocybe cubensis - Relinquishing of Material Chains/Fear and Desolation
- Experience:300mg DPH + 600mg DXM - An Interesting Combo
- Experience:300µg AL-LAD - Don't worry, because you're everyone!
- Experience:300µg LSD - Togetherness and the Silent Dusk
- Experience:30mg (smoked) DMT - The Monolith
- Experience:337mg DMT fumarate - A Day With DMT
- Experience:354mg DXM, weed, nicotine - Descending into the void
- Experience:4 Days Sleep Deprivation - Progression of Sleep Deprivation Visuals Over Time
- Experience:4-HO-DET (20 mg, oral) - Tripping for my birthday
- Experience:4.5g - The Grand Introduction to Beauty and Fear
- Experience:400mg DXM + 300mg DPH – Bacterial friends
- Experience:40mg + Syrian rue (3g) - My triumphant return
- Experience:40mg DMT - Second breakthrough
- Experience:4x 200ug tabs - You do not need to understand
- Experience:5 yopo seeds - Midnight Jungle
- Experience:550mg-Bugs All Around Me.
- Experience:700mg - Joining the 700 club
- Experience:700mg - To the dextroverse.
- Experience:700mg Diphenhydramine trip
- Experience:Becoming a god with my boyfriend
- Experience:DMT (75 mg, smoked) - Bad trip with illustration
- Experience:DMT (~50mg) + Cannabis - Geometric Angels
- Experience:DPH (750 mg) - The Dancing Invisible Men Come to Life!
- Experience:DXM & DPH in combination
- Experience:DXM and Cannabis: 100mg - Unexpected Strong Trip
- Experience:Datura & DPH - Results of Experiment by Isopropanol
- Experience:Dem Shadow People and Such (A Retrospective)
- Experience:LSD (120ug) - An Overdose of LSD and Trip into Insanity
- Experience:LSD (150µg) + Cannabis - 150µg lsd and a shitload of weed
- Experience:LSD (230 ug) - An amazing adventure by vikilikepsych
- Obreshkova, D., Kandilarov, I., Angelova, V. T., Iliev, Y., Atanasov, P., & Fotev, P. S. (2017). PHARMACO-TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND ANALYSIS OF PHENYLALKYLAMINE AND INDOLYLALKYLAMINE HALLUCINOGENS (REVIEW). PHARMACIA, 64(1), 41-42. http://bsphs.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Angelova.pdf
- Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy; Kuipers, Elizabeth (2003). "PHENOMENOLOGY OF VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS IN PSYCHIATRIC CONDITIONS". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 191 (3): 203–205. doi:10.1097/01.NMD.0000055084.01402.02. ISSN 0022-3018.